Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


sa    si    so    su    

PMc   *[sS]aa   ruined

Trukesetabe destroyed, in pieces, in ruins 
 (a)-taa-(y)destroy it, break it in pieces 
Puluwatesetaa-(ló)be ruined 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-taa-(y)destroy, devastate, smash 
Kiribatirae-ain disorder, disarranged 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zaqa·ruined
 ha’aha’acluttered up 
Lautaabad, evil 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*saqatbad  (Ross 1988)

PMc   *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i-   weave a net

Trukesettamesh guage 
 ttaa-yiweave (a net) 
 ttaa-yi-ya-net woven by (someone) 
Kiribatiraaito twist and tangle easily (as a thread or line) 
Proto-Oceanic*saa·weave a net
West Nakanairarato set up (a fish net) 

— Cf. —

Mokilesedaur, dɔwto make (a net) 
Marshallesettawmend a net 
Tongansia, sia-’ito weave a net or spiderweb 

PCMc   *[sS]aaŋa   to flow strongly

Mokilesedeeŋgiving lots of sap (of a coconut tree), spout of coconut leaf along which coconut sap is drained into a container 
Pingilapesedεεŋgiving lots of sap (of a coconut tree) 
Marshallesetayaŋchoice coconut tree for collecting sap 
Kiribatiraaŋato flow, to run as rain water 

Note that the Mokilese and Pingilapese forms are probably loans from Marshallese.

PMc   *sae   torn

Trukesettáá-(riŋ)be torn (as clothing) 
 táá-(riŋe-ey)rip it, tear it 
Puluwatesetáá-(riŋa-a-ló)tear it away (as a sail) 
Saipan Carolinianttáá-(riŋ)be torn, ripped 
 táá-(riŋa), táá-(riŋi-i-y)to tear or rip (something) 
Woleaiantaa-(riŋe)be ripped, torn 
 taa-(riŋa-a)rip it, tear it 
Kiribatiraeraeengage in stripping (as fronds from a tree) 
 rae-ato tear (something) 
 rae-(bae-a)strip a coconut tree of its fronds 
 rae-(bitia)to tear (something) in pieces 
Kusaiean(si)-sεtear, rip, rend 
 seto tear (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*saRetear, rip  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   (?)   *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi-   to gather, pick

Trukesetafbe gathered, picked (of green leaves) 
 tafatafgathering, picking, plucking (of leaves) 
 tafe-nigather, pick (something) 
Puluwatesetafto pick (of leaves) 
 tefa-ŋipick (leaves) with the hands 
Saipan Caroliniantafatafpick leaves (from branches) 
Proto-Chuukic*dafa, dafadafa, dafa-ŋi-·to gather, pick
Ponapeiandape-ŋto pull (something) apart or off 
Mokilesedɔpdɔpto squeeze by pulling 
 dapa-ŋto rip (something) off 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*dafa, dafa-ŋi-·to gather, pick
Proto–Eastern Oceanic(?) *[sz]afa-ŋi·to gather, pick
Sa’a(?) taha-ŋito eat the first fruits 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *[sS]afi₁ ‘pick, pluck, tear off’, Proto-Chuukic *daf[ei] ‘be open’, Proto-Micronesian *tafa, tafa-si ‘to cut in pieces, slice’.

PMc   (?)   *[sS]afi₁   pick, pluck, tear off

Trukesetefitefto tear, rip 
 tefi-i-(y)tear, rip (something) 
Puluwatesetefá-ŋipick (something) with the hands (as breadfruit, bananas, etc.) 
 tefe-ŋaa-(to)pick and bring (leaves) 
Saipan Caroliniantafatafto pick leaves from branches 
 tafe-ŋito pick (leaves) 
Woleaiantefitefito pull loose, pull off, draw down, tug 
 tefi-ŋi-(i)pull it loose, pull it off, tefi-ŋegi be pulled loose, drawn down, tugged 
 tefi-ŋegibe pulled loose, drawn down, tugged 
Proto-Chuukic(?) *dafi, dafi-ŋi-·pick, pluck, tear off
Proto–Eastern Oceanic* [sz]afi (Saa táhito rend 
Arositahi, tahitahito cut, cut off [as in shaping an arrow] 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annandei-ŋitear it apart, tatter it 
Sonsorolesefei-ŋitear it apart, tatter it 
Ponapeiandaphave the foreskin of the penis withdrawn 
 dape-ŋto pull apart, pull off 
Mokilesedɔpdɔpto squeeze by pulling 
 dapa-ŋto rip (something) off, break (a lock) open 
Kiribatirae-ato tear (something) 
 raraisection of a bunch of bananas 
Kusaieansisεtear, rip, rend 
 setear, shred, rip, rend (something) 
 srʌsrato shred, rip 
 srʷeto shred, cut, or tear (something) to bits 

PMc   *[sS]afi₂   be wide open

Saipan Carolinianttáfbe wide open (of wound, vagina, eyelid rolled back) 
 táfito open (something) wide 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttefito open (something) wide 
Woleaianttafibe opened (of vagina), pulled apart 
 tafi-i-(ye)open it with the fingers, pull it apart 
Proto-Chuukic*dafi, dadafi·be wide open
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zafi·be wide open
Fijiancavipenis after circumcision 
Arositahicome apart 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *daf[ei] ‘be open’.

PMc   *saisai, sai-ti   sew

Trukeseteete, tee-yi·sew
Puluwateseteete, tee-y·sew
Saipan Carolinianteete, tee-yi·sew
Satawaleseteete, tee-yi·sew
Woleaianteetee, tee-ye·sew
Pulo-Annanteitei, tei-di·sew
Proto-Chuukic*daidai, dai-ti·sew
Mokilesedɔdɔ, dɔ·sew
Kusaieantʌta, tʌ·sew
Proto-Oceanic*saqit·sew (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Marshallesetaytéy, tayi-kbind, roll up (as a line or film on a spool) 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceaniczaqi-tcopulate  (Geraghty 1983)

— and cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[cz]aRuneedle  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *sakau   reef, reef island

Trukesetééuninhabited low island 
 (wii)-tééclan name (on low island) 
Mortlockesetéé-(n)island of 
Puluwatesetééuninhabited reef island 
Saipan Caroliniantéésmall atolls, low islands 
Satawalesetééininhabited low island 
Woleaiantegaú-(lape)name of an island in Woleai 
 tééany outer island 
Pulo-Annantakaúgroup of islands, archipaleago 
Proto-Chuukic*dakaú·reef, reef island
Mokilesedɔkɔ, dɔkɔɔ-(n)atoll, small island, islet, atoll of 
Marshallesetekaystrip of reef, long reef between two islets 
Kusaieantʌkaisland, atoll 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zakaRu·reef, reef island (Geraghty 1983)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*cakuRu·reef, reef island (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*[sz]akaRu·reef, reef island
Proto-Polynesian*hakaucoral reef 
Sa’ataalushoal water, coral patch 
Bugotuhagalureef, sea 
Arosita’arushoal, shallow spot in sea 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*sakaRu·reef, reef island (Blust 1989:163)

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *sakau. Note the doublet in Woleaian.

PMc   *[sS]ake   ride

Puluwatesetáátáto ride on 
Saipan Caroliniantaay, taaya-(l)means of transportation, ride, vehicle that provides transportation, his means of transportation 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttááymeans of transportation 
Woleaiantage-e-(ye)ride it, sail it 
Pulo-Annantakeride on, rise, climb 
Ponapeiandakεride in or on (a vehicle), be the first or best, top (all others) 
Mokilesedakto ride on a vehicle 
 dakɔride on it 
Marshallese(yek)-takto load, haul 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic* [sz]aketo rise up, stand 
Sa’ata’eto rise up, stand 
Lautake, tataketo stand 
Arosita’e, ta’e-rito embark in a canoe 
Kwaiota’e, ta’e-li-[a]to embark, get aboard 
Proto-Kimbe*saqeto climb up 

See also Proto-Micronesian *Sake ‘up, upʷard’.

PMc   *[sS]aku   needlefish

 tékú-(naar), tékú-(raar)marlin 
Saipan Caroliniantaagh·needlefish
Saipan Carolinian·Ttaag·needlefish
Woleaiantaagú, tagú-, tagú-(raare)·needlefish
Pulo-Annantakú-(lala)sword fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*saku·needlefish
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*saku·needlefish (Blust 1980:140)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *[sS]aku-laara ‘swordfish, marlin’.

PMc   *[sS]aku-laara   swordfish, marlin

Trukesetékú-naar, tékú-raar·swordfish, marlin
Puluwatesetaakú-laar [sic]·swordfish, marlin
Saipan Caroliniantagha-laar·swordfish, marlin
Woleaiantagú-raare·swordfish, marlin
Proto-Chuukic*dakuayellow-fin tuna 
Ponapeiandεki-laar·swordfish, marlin
Mokilesedak-lar·swordfish, marlin
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*daku-laara·swordfish, marlin
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*saku-layaRa sailfish  (Geraghty 1990)

Note assimilation of Trukese n and Woleaian l to following r. See also Proto-Micronesian (?) *lea or *laya‘a sail’, Proto-Micronesian *[sS]aku ‘needlefish’.

PMc   *salu, salusalu   to scrub, wash

Trukeseténbe scrubbed, scoured, washed (of hands and dishes, but not clothes) 
 ténúto scrub, wash, rub, dust (something), shine (shoes) 
 téna-a-(nó), ténó-ó-(nó)wipe (something) off 
 tétténwashing, scrubbing, scouring, erasing 
Mortlockesetalúto wash (hands, dishes, rice) 
Puluwatesetéla-a-(ló), tála-a-(ló)to wash (something) off 
 tale-(wu) [sic]washed object, to wash (as hands or rice) 
Saipan Caroliniantattalto wash kitchen things  (Bender et al. 1984)
 talú-(w)to wash (dishes, hands) 
Satawalesetettalto wash things 
 talúwash (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*dalú·to scrub, wash
Kusaieantæltælto wash 
 tæltælito wash (genitals) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*salu·to scrub, wash
Sa’atálu-hito draw out water, draw at a well 
Lautaluto sprinkle 
Arositaru, taru-hito draw, dip, get water 
Kwaiotalu-si-[a]to carry or wash away [of running water] 

PMc   *saŋu   to smell something

Mortlockesetéŋé-(w)smell it 
Puluwatesetéŋú-ú-(w)to smell, sniff (something) 
 téŋúsmell it 
Pulo-Annantaŋúsmell it 
Proto-Chuukic*daŋú·to smell something
Marshallese(ya)-teŋʷto smell (something) 
Kusaiean(mi)-sʌŋsʌŋsmelly, stinking of urine 

— Cf. —

Trukesettinto smell, perceive odor 
 tinismell it 

— Cf. —

Jabêmŋuto smell (an odor) 

PCMc   *sapa   able, prepared

Saipan Caroliniantapbe free to do a task without outside interference 
 tapé-(légh), tapú-(légh)be able to do a job despite outside distractions, be ready, prepared 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttapé-(nég)be ready, prepared 
Woleaiantapebe ready, prepared 
Proto-Chuukic*dapa·able, prepared
Kiribatiraba-(kau)skillful, dexterous, knowing and ready 

Pulo-Annan lépakaú ‘be capable, able, smart’ appears to be a loan from Kiribati, perhaps from crewmen on D. D. O’Keefe’s trading boat that operated out of Yap in the late nineteenth century.

PMc   *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi   to help

Saipan Caroliniantapatapto help, aid, assist 
 tepa-ŋito help (someone) 
Satawalese(a)-tapataphelp, give help 
 tipá-ŋihelp (someone) 
Woleaian(ge)-tapetapeto help, support, assist 
 tepa-ŋi-(i)to help or assist (someone) 
Pulo-Annantapatapato help 
 tapa-ŋito help him 
Proto-Chuukic*dapa, dapa-ŋi-·to help
Marshallesejipa-ŋhelp, aid 
 jipa-ŋ-(ey)help (someone) 
Kusaieantaptapto help 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*tabaŋhelp, assist  (Blust 1989:168)

— Cf. —

Kusaieantʌtæfto help 
 tæfʌ, tæfwe-help (someone) 
Sa’aapeto encourage (someone) 

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *tape₁ ‘busy’, Proto-Micronesian *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki ‘lift up, carry, bear in one’s hands’. It looks as if the Chuukic forms with initial t have resulted from an early (possibly Proto-Chuukic) borrowing from another Micronesian source.

PWMc   *sasana   dream

 ttanadream about (something) 
Puluwatesettanto dream 
 ttana-adream it 
Saipan Carolinianttal·dream
Saipan Carolinian·Tttan·dream
Marshallesetteṇa-kto dream 

— Cf. —

Fijiantadra, tatadrato dream 

PMc   *sawa   reef pass, channel

Trukesetaaw, -taw, tewe-(n)pass in a reef, pass of 
Satawalesetaaw, tawe-(n)·reef pass, channel
Woleaiantaawe, tewa-channel, harbor 
Pulo-Annantao [sic]·reef pass, channel
Proto-Chuukic*dawa·reef pass, channel
Ponapeiandaaw·reef pass, channel
Mokilesedaw·reef pass, channel
Pingilapesedaw, dewe-(n)·reef pass, channel
Marshallesetew, tewe-channel, pass into a lagoon 
 tewahplace for beaching canoes 
Kiribatirawachannel to a lagoon or harbor 
Proto-Oceanic*sawa·reef pass, channel
Fijian(mataa)-sawalanding place on a beach 
Sa’atawaopening in the shore reef 
Kwaiotakʷalanding place 
Uraustronesisch*sawaŋlanding place 

See also Marck (1994:315) Proto-Micronesian *sawa.

PCMc   *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta   to break, destroy (something)

Woleaiantewa-si-i-(ye)break it, destroy it, tear it up 
Pulo-Annantawa-dibe broken 
 (ka)-tawa-dito break it, destroy it 
Proto-Chuukic*[dt]awa-ti-·to break, destroy (something)
 rawa-taa wounded one 

PMc   *sawee   unimpeded

Trukesetawebe convenient, be finished, done 
Puluwatesetawebe free, not busy 
Saipan Caroliniantawebe free to do something, be free from interference in ones work 
Woleaiantaweeto be able, get through, be possible 
Kusaieantwe-(n)be good at 

PCMc   *sawu   enough, sufficient

Puluwatesetówbe enough (in food distribution) 
Saipan Caroliniantowhave enough 
Woleaiantaube enough, sufficient 
Proto-Chuukic*dawu·enough, sufficient
Kiribatiraucomfortable, quiet, undisturbed 
 rau-(aki)satisfied, having had enough food 

— Cf. —

Ponapeiandawovertired (as a muscle) 

Note that Kiribati tau ‘enough, sufficient’ has an unexpected intial t, and cannot be a true cognate.

PMc   *[sS]i-   moving, going

Trukeseti-moving, going 
 (e)-ti-(nó)go off 
 (fi)-tiaccompany, go with (someone), attend (school) 
Mortlockese(fi)-tiaccompany (someone) 
Puluwatese(fi)-ti-(ló)go away with someone 
Saipan Carolinian(fi)-tmix together 
 (fi)-tibe in addition to, go together with 
Satawalese(fi)-tigo with, accompany (someone) 
Woleaian(fi)-ti-(i)accompany it, go with it 
Pulo-Annan(ka)-ti-ŋithrow it 
Proto-Chuukic*di-·moving, going
Kiribatiri-(mʷoa)to go before, go first 
 ri-(mʷii)to go after, go behind, go later 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zi-, zizi·moving, going
Fijiancicito run 
 cici-varun to (a place) 

PMc   *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka   sew, stick through

Trukeseti-kbe sticking through, be piercing 
 ti-kistitch or sew (thatch) 
 tti-kbe sewn or stitched 
Puluwateseti (faaR)sew thatch (pandanus) 
 ti-ki-i-(y)sew it 
Saipan Carolinian·Tti-gegneedle 
Woleaianti-gi-(i)sew it 
Proto-Chuukic*di-, di-ki-, di-kaki·sew, stick through
Mokilesedi-kto protrude 
Kiribatiri-kawooden needle for netting 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*si-kanet-needle  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’asi-kea thorn 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi ‘inserted, penetrated’.

PCMc   *sia-   lips


PCMc   *siki   very, more

Trukese-ttikvery, intensifying adjective 
 (para)-ttik, -ttiki-(n)bright red, bright redness of 
Puluwatese-kkitrepeatedly, constantly 
Saipan Carolinian-ttighhot, spicy, overly flavored (of food) 
Saipan Carolinian·T-ttighot, spicy, overly flavored (of food) 
Proto-Chuukic*ddiki·very, more
Kiribatirikiagain, in addition, more (following an adjective, as in the Eng. suffix -er) 

PMc   *[sS]iko   scoop up

Trukesetuk, tukotukscoop up 
 tuko-(ppi)do sand scooping 
Saipan Caroliniantughe-e-yscoop up, shovel up (sand, rice) 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttuge-yscoop up, shovel up (sand, rice) 
Kiribatiriko-a, rikoriko-apick up 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ziko-(f)·scoop up
Tonganhikopick up, gather up 
Sa’asi’o. si’o-higather, collect 
Bugotusiko-mitake, gather, collect 
Arosisi’o, si’o-hito find, pick up 
Kwaiosi’o-fi-(a)pick up 

— Cf. —

Fijianciqocatch something thrown 

PWMc   *sili   louse egg, nit

Puluwatesetiil, tili-(n)tiny growth stage of various fish 
Woleaiantiili, tiili-louse egg, first stage of louse development 
Ponapeiandiil·louse egg, nit
Mokilesedilsmall lice 
Marshallesetélnit, larvae of lice 

— Cf. —

Kiribatirinalarvae from which lice spring 

— and cf. —

Yapesethiisnit, louse egg 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *dili ‘a small fish’.

PMc   *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi   inserted, penetrated

Trukesetinbe inserted, put in between 
 (e)-tiniinsert it, put it between 
 tini-fito go among or between (things) 
Puluwatesetilto place, put 
Saipan Caroliniantilto push brush or grass or other obstructions out of ones way when traveling in the forest 
 tili-fághto wedge an object into a crack or space between objects for safekeeping or storage 
 tili-fághe-(li)to shove or wedge (something) into a space for storage 
 tili-(fatal)to wander between and among objects or people 
Woleaiantili-fegi-(li)stick it in, pierce with it, thrust it into something 
Proto-Chuukic*dili, dili-fi-·inserted, penetrated
Ponapeiandilto penetrate, go through, pass into 
Mokilesedilto enter 
 dili-mto put under (something, in weaving), to stick through (something) 
Kiribati(ka)-rinacause (something) to enter 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zili, zili-fi, zili-faki·inserted, penetrated
Fijiancili, cili-vato cut or lance the body 
Tonganhili, hili-fakiput or lay or place on something 
Sa’asili, sisilito enter 
 sili-hienter, go into [something] 
Bugotuhili, hiihilito transgress, violate 
 hili-vito infringe, violate, go throughout 
 siri-higo in, penetrate 
 siri-ha’igo in, enter 
Kwaiosili, sili-fi-[a]drip through, leak through 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka ‘sew, stick through’.

PMc   *[sS]in[ae]   shine

Trukesettin, ttine-(n)shine, shining, brightness, ray, beam, shine of 
Puluwatesetinto shine 
 tini-nshining of 
Saipan Carolinianttilto shine 
 tili-(l)shining of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tttinto shine 
 ttini-(n)shining of 
Woleaianttúleto shine, glow, twinkle 
Pulo-Annanttinelight, to shine 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zinashine  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*sinaR·shine (Ross 1988)
Fijicinalamp or torch 
 sine-lito lighten, give light to 
Bugotuhinamidday, sun overhead 
 hina-raa light, to shine 
 sina-limoon, month 
Arosisinasun, torch 
Proto-Austronesian*SiNaŋsunbeam, light  (Wolff 1993)

— Cf. —


The reconstruction by Marck (1994:309) of Proto-Micronesian * [sz]ina is not supported by the Kiribati and Marshallese forms cited. See also Proto-Micronesian (?)*siŋa ‘sunlight’.

PMc   (?)   *siŋa   sunlight

Kiribatiririŋaclear sunlight, sunshine, to shine brightly 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*siŋa·sunlight
Fijiansigaday, daylight 
Kwaiosiŋa-limoon, month 

See also Proto-Micronesian *[sS]in[ae] ‘shine’.

PCMc   *siŋ[iu]   leak out, drip

Trukesettúŋto flow (of sap or sweat) 
Woleaianttúŋúto emerge, come out slowly, pour out (of sweat) 
Proto-Chuukic*ddúŋú·leak out, drip
Ponapeiandiŋto drip, leak 

— Cf. —

Mokilesedunto drip 

— Cf. —

Kwaio(uta) siŋosiŋodrizzle 

PMc   *sipa   emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind

Trukesetiip, tipa-(n)emotion, etc, his emotion 
 (nee)-tipplace of emotion (in the abdomen) 
Puluwatesetiip, tipa-(n)·emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind
Saipan Caroliniantiip, tipa-(l)·emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind
Woleaiantiipe, tipa-(le)·emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind
Pulo-Annantiipa, tipa-·emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind
Proto-Chuukic*dipa·emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude, mind
Ponapeiandiip, dipεsin, his sentiment 
Mokilesedip-(kel)to suffer a moral lapse 
Marshallesetipe-nway of, manner of 
Kiribatiriba-ahate or dislike (something) 
Kusaieantipε-(l)his personality 

— Cf. —

Fijiancibafaint, lose consciousness 
Arosisiba, siba-ni, siba-ŋito look for, search, seek 

PMc   *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki   slice, chunk, to cut, to slice

Trukesetiip, tipe-(n), -tipslice, chunk, cut segment (of breadfruit and taro only), chip (of wood from adzing), slice of, slice (in counting) 
 (e)-tippass chunks of breadfruit 
 #tipe-rislice or cut (something) into chunks 
Mortlockesetiip, tipa-(n)piece, piece of 
 tipa-kεcut it into pieces 
 -tépclassifier for slice, piece 
Puluwatesetiipslice (as of breadfruit or taro) 
 tipáá-ki-y [sic]to slice (as breadfruit or taro), to cut (as coconut fronds) 
 (yá)-tipto slice breadfruit 
 (yá)-tipato slice it 
Saipan Caroliniantiip, tipa-(l)slice, chunk, piece, slice of 
 (sá)-tip, (sá)-tipa-lslice, piece (of firewood, banana, breadfruit), slice of 
Satawalesetiip, tipa-(l)piece, piece of 
 tipá-kicut it into pieces 
Woleaian-tipecut up segment of breadfruit (in counting) 
 tipe-(shigi)slice or chop into pieces, ttippe break away from main body, chip off the main part, come off, be removed from something 
 ttippebreak away from main body, chip off the main part, come off, be removed from something 
Proto-Chuukic*diip, dipa-, dipa-ki-·slice, chunk, to cut, to slice
Ponapeiandipgrain (of wood), slice or chip (as of breadfruit or taro) (in counting) 
 dipεto slice (breadfruit or taro) 
Mokilesedipslice, chip 
Pingilapesedipslice, chip 
Marshallesetipe-(n)fragment of, cut piece of 
 tip-(dikdik)small pieces 
 tépwood shavings 
Kusaieansipsipslice, cut, mince 
 sipi-kslice, cut (something) 
 ipε-lpart, piece, scrap, fragment of it 
 ipipbe chopped in small pieces 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[sz]ipa, [sz]iba·slice, chunk, to cut, to slice
Fijianciva, civa-tacut into small pieces [as yams for soup] 
Bausipaslice a yam, husk a coconut 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanka-ma-tipicut or break it into pieces 
Yapesethipwood chips, sawdust 

PMc   *siwo   down, westward

Trukese-tiw, tiwetiw·down, westward
Mortlockese-téw·down, westward
Puluwatese-tiw·down, westward
Saipan Carolinian-tiwdown 
 tiwe-(y)chop or cut (something) down 
Satawalese-tiw·down, westward
Woleaian-tiwe·down, westward
Pulo-Annan-tio·down, westward
Proto-Chuukic*-diwo·down, westward
Pingilapese-di·down, westward
 téwdisembark, climb down 
Kiribati-riodownard, westward 
 ruodescend, come or go down 
Kusaieantu-(fokfok)keep on coming down 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*-zifo·down, westward (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*sipo·down, westward (Ross 1988:463)
Fijiansiwodebased, put down 
Sa’asihodescend, disembark 
Lausifogo down 
Proto-Nakanai*sivodescend, go down 

See Marck (1994:324) Proto-Micronesian *sio. See also Proto-Chuukic *diw[ao] ‘change location’.

PMc   *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-ŋi-   push, shove

Trukesetibe crowded, pushed together 
 tiitipush, shove, shoving, pushing 
 tii-nipush it, shove it, send it 
 tii-naa-(nó)send it away 
Mortlockesetiitito push 
 tii-ŋipush it in 
Puluwatesetii-ŋsend, order, push 
 tii-ŋaa-(ló)send it away 
Saipan Caroliniantii-ŋito push (something) 
Satawalesetiitito push 
 tii-ŋipush it 
Woleaiantiitiipush shove, jostle 
 tii-ŋi-(i)push it, shove it, jostle it 
Pulo-Annantiitiipush, shove 
 tii-ŋipush it, shove it 
Sonsorolesetii-ŋipush it 
Proto-Chuukic*dii, diidii, dii-ŋi-·push, shove
Ponapeiandirbe overcrowded, filled, plentiful 
Mokilesedirmany, much 
 (ka)-dirito fill (something) 
Kiribatirii-ŋato feel of (something), handle, touch 
Proto-Oceanic*sigi, siki·push, shove
Sa’asikito tap, touch with the fingers 
 siki-hito infect, carry contagion [to someone] 
Bugotuhiŋgi-lito touch [something] 
Arosisigitap with the finger 
 sigi-hito infect with 
West Nakanaisigi-lifill up with liquid 
 (idogo) sigi-ri-(a)place a leaf funnel in a water bottle 

— Cf. —

Fijiancigifill up a crevice or push a thing into it 

— Cf. also —

Kusaieanisɔs, iso-ŋ, isiso-ŋstick in, push in, cram in 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *die ‘squeezed, pushed together’.

PCMc   *soa   far, distant

Trukesetoo-(w)(from *too-[awa]) and too-(waaw) (from *too- [awaawa]) far, distant 
Puluwatesetoo-(wo-ló)·far, distant
Saipan Caroliniantaawbe far 
 taawu-(ló)be very far 
Woleaianttaawe·far, distant
Pulo-Annanttao·far, distant
Proto-Chuukic(?) *doa-·far, distant
Ponapeiandoodistant, far off 
Mokilesedoodistant, far off 
 tewlong time 
Kiribatiraroaremote, distant 

— Cf. —

Kiribatirau-(tari)rinse off salt water 
Proto-Oceanic*sauq·far, distant
Sa’a[ha’a]-taufar off, distant 
Bugotuhaube far, a long time 
Arosi[ha’a]-taufar off 
Kwaiotataufar, distant, for long 
Uraustronesisch*Za[hØ]uq·far, distant

— Cf. also —

Fijianyawadistant, far away 

Note: there could be a problem here.

PMc   (?)   *[sS]oka   pierce, stab

Woleaiantogatogepierce, stab, to stick something into (a young coconut) 
Proto-Chuukic*doka·pierce, stab
Ponapeiandokbe stabbed, speared, skewered 
 dɔkɔto stab, spear, skewer (something) 
Mokilesedokstab, poke, inject 
 dɔkɔstab, etc. (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zokapierce, spear  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancokato pierce 
Proto-Polynesian*hokastab, pierce 

PCMc   *soko   toward speaker, hither

Trukese-to, -too-·toward speaker, hither
Mortlockese-to·toward speaker, hither
Puluwatese-to·toward speaker, hither
Saipan Carolinian-to·toward speaker, hither
Satawalese-to·toward speaker, hither
Woleaiantogo·toward speaker, hither
Pulo-Annan-toko·toward speaker, hither
Proto-Chuukic*-doko·toward speaker, hither
Ponapeian-do·toward speaker, hither
Mokilese-do·toward speaker, hither
Marshallesetekʷ, tak·toward speaker, hither
Kiribatiroko·toward speaker, hither

See also Proto-Micronesian *[sS]oko ‘reach, arrive’.

PMc   *[sS]oko   reach, arrive

Trukesetobe reachable, be reached, attained 
 too-rireach, arrive at, attain to (some place or thing) 
 too-(ŋeni)be able to, be capable of 
Saipan Caroliniantoo-rireach, arrive at 
Woleaiantogoarrive, land, come ashore, be safe home 
Pulo-Annantoko·reach, arrive
Proto-Chuukic*doko·reach, arrive
Kiribatirokocome, arrive 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*sokoarrive (of ship)  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiansokoto sail, voyage 
Sa’ato’o, to’oto’oto hit, encounter, succeed 
Lautooto hit, possess, have 
Bugotuhogo-vito hit 
Arosito’o, to’o-hito hit, strike, succeed, convince 
Kwaioto’oto receive, catch, hit 
West Nakanaisoojust now, recently 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanto come, land 
 tʌkʌto come 
Fijiancoato have arrived 
 soasoato reach land alive after being in a gale 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *soko ‘toward speaker, hither’.

PMc   *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a   to mix

 tonáá-nimix (something) 
Mortlockesetolεto knead, rub together 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-tola-(feŋálli)mix (things) together 
Satawalesetoláá-limix it 
Woleaiantelaabe mixed well, mingled, blended 
 telaa-li-(i)mix it, mingle it, blend it 
Pulo-Annantonabe mixed well, mingled, blended 
 tona-nito mix, blend, fuse (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*dolaa, dolaa-[ln]i-·to mix
Ponapeiandolto mix 
 dɔlɔto mix (something) 
Marshallesetewlahto knead preserved breadfruit 
Proto–Eastern Oceanicjola·to mix (Geraghty 1983)
 dola-lito commingle, dilute 
Bugotujoajothabe mixed 
 (horu) jothato mix 
Arosidora, dora-himix, mingle 

— Cf. —

Puluwatesetoolato rub together (as leaves to obtain fragrance) 

PMc   *[sS]olo   fade from view

Trukesetonvisible, discernible 
 tono-(nó)fade from view 
 (ó)-tonato make visible, to view (something) 
Puluwatesetolo-(ló)to disappear 
 tolo-nsetting of (a star) 
Saipan Caroliniantolto disappear 
Woleaiantolodisappear, submerge, go out of sight, vanish 
Pulo-Annantonoto set (of sun) 
Proto-Chuukic*dolo·fade from view
Marshalleseḷwetdisappear, die out (showing metathesis) 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*celebto sink, submerge  (Blust 1989)

— Cf. —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*telemto sink, disappear under water  (Blust 1986: 100)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*telebsink, vanish  (Blust 1989:171)

PMc   *soŋo, soŋosoŋo   to smart, sting

Trukesetoŋ·to smart, sting
Mortlockesetoŋotoŋto sting 
 toŋe-(y)sting (someone) 
Puluwatesetoŋotoŋto burn, itch, sting, have a sharp taste 
 toŋo-(y)to sting (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian(bʷoo)-ttoŋotoŋsmell sweaty, unclean, unwashed 
Satawalesetoŋotoŋ·to smart, sting
Proto-Chuukic*doŋo·to smart, sting
Kusaiean(mi)-sʌŋsʌŋsmelly, stinking of urine 

— Cf. —

Marshallesejeŋpain in arm caused by throwing 
Fijiancogasharp point, barb 

See also Proto-Chuukic *li-mʷa-doŋo ‘stinging jellyfish’.

PMc   *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi-   grab, capture, seize

Trukese#turbe grabbed, taken, seized 
 #(o)-turucause to be arrested 
 turu-fito catch hold of, capture, grab, snatch, seize (something) 
Puluwatesetottorto catch with the hands 
 toro-fi-ygrab, catch (something) 
Saipan Caroliniantoro-fito catch something (either catcher or prey must be moving) 
Woleaiantottoroto catch with hands, capture, gather, seize 
 toro-fi-(i)catch it, overtake it, seize it, capture it 
Proto-Chuukic*doro, doro-fi-·grab, capture, seize
Kiribatiroa-acatch (a fish) with rod and line 
 roorooto be at anchor, to anchor 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*soRo-fcatch  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti-   to dig

Trukesettudig, be dug 
 tuutudo digging 
 ttuu-(w)dig (earth) 
Puluwatesetowdig earth (as with a shovel) 
Proto-Chuukic*dowu·to dig
Marshallesettéwto dig taro 
 tiwij(iy)dig taro (tr.) 
Kiribatirourouto dig up taro 
 rou-tato dig (something) up 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*sopu-t·to dig
Fijiansovu, sovu-tahollow out [a canoe] 

— Cf. —

Sa’atohuto chop 
 tohu-le’i-nito chop (something) 
Bugotujoudig a hole, hew, carve 
 joujouto hollow out 
Kwaiotofucut things up 

— Cf. also —

West Nakanaiovi, ovovigather taro 

See Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *dowu ‘stab, pierce, be stabbed, pierced’.

PMc   *[sS]ua   dug hole

Kiribatiruapit, grave 
Proto-Oceanic*suaroot up, dig up, lever up 
Fijiancuastick by which a fish net is lifted 
Proto-Polynesian*suaturn over, raise up 
Arosisuato root up earth as a pig 
West Nakanaisua, sue-apush up the stones of the earth oven with a stick 

— Cf. —

Trukesetúú, túwa-nvulva, her vulva (vulgar) 

PMc   *suku   hit, strike

Trukesetuku-u-(w)daub (something) 
 tuku-u-(ŋeni)daub (something) on (something) 
 tuku-(yá)dance in which hardwood staves are struck against one another 
Mortlockesetuku-u-(w)to punch 
Puluwatesetuku-u-(w)hit, strike (something) 
Saipan Caroliniantughu-u-(w)to punch, hit (someone or something) 
 tuughclosed fist 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttuugclosed fist 
Woleaianttuguto touch, border on, strike lightly, come in contact 
 tugugive a blow with the fist 
Proto-Chuukic*duku, dduku, duku-u-·hit, strike
Kusaieantukutukto pound 
 tukpound (something) 
 toka pounder 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*suku, suku-mi·hit, strike
Fijiansuku, suku-mato touch a woman in front or behind 
Bugotujuujukuto strike, hurt, harm, be cruel to 
Kwaiosu’u-mi-[a]poke, flick with the fingers 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *Tuku ‘pound, knock’, with which there seems to have been some semantic confusion.

PMc   *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi   be wrapped, a package, to wrap (something)

Trukesetúkútúk, túkútúkú-(n)package, packet, bundle, parcel, package of 
 -túkú-mpackage, packet (in counting) 
 túkú-ma-(n)package of it 
 túkú-mimake (it) into a package or bundle, wrap (it) up 
Mortlockesetúkú-méwrap it 
Puluwatesetúkútúk, túkútúkú-(n)package, leaf package, package of 
 -túkú-mpackage (in counting) 
 túkú-mito wrap (it) in a leaf package 
Saipan Caroliniantúghútúgh, tughutughany tightly wrapped bundle 
 tughu-miwrap (something) into a bundle 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttúgútúgany tightly wrapped bundle 
 túgú-miwrap (something) into a bundle 
Satawalesetúkú-miwrap it 
Woleaiantúgútúgúfuneral gift 
 túgú-mewrapped preserved breadfruit 
 túgú-mi-(i)wrap it, cover it 
Pulo-Annantúkútúkúbe wrapped, to wrap 
 túkú-mito wrap it, hide it 
Proto-Chuukic*dúkúdúkú, dúkú-ma, dúkú-mi-·be wrapped, a package, to wrap (something)
Ponapeiankidikidto wrap (showing metathesis) 
 kidi-miwrap (something) 
Mokilesekidkidto wrap 
 kidi-mwrap (something) 
Marshallesekété-mbundle of mats (showing metathesis) 
 kiti-mmat used to cover a corpse, to wrap (a body) 
Kiribatiruku-maa package 
 ruku-ma, ruku-mi-(a)to fold or wrap (something) up, fold or wrap it up 

Kusaiean sroko-m, sroko-mi ‘to wrap, envelop, wrap (something)’ appear to be loans.

PMc   *sulu   torch

Saipan Caroliniantúúl·torch
Woleaiantúúlú, túlú-·torch
Pulo-Annantúúnú, túnú-·torch
Ponapeiandiildried coconut fronds, torch 
 ndiltorch made of dried coconut leaves, to fish with torches 
Kiribatirin, rini-dried coconut leaf 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*suluq·torch
Proto-Polynesian*sulu, susulu·torch

— Cf. —

Kwaiounutorch, light 

We cannot account for Trukese téén, #téénú- or the Puluwatese doublet téél.

PCMc   *sumʷuru   the star Antares

Trukesetumʷurthe star Antares, name of a sidereal month 
PuluwatesetumʷurAntares, a sidereal month 
Saipan CaroliniantumʷurAntares, a sidereal month 
Satawalesetumʷur·the star Antares
Woleaiantumʷiri·the star Antares
Pulo-Annantumʷulia sidereal month equated with March 
Proto-Chuukic*dumʷuri·the star Antares
Ponapeiandimʷir·the star Antares (Bender et al. 1984)
Mokileseand Png dumʷurconstellation name 
MarshallesetimʷirʷAntares, constellation tau, alpha, sigma Scorpionis 
Kiribatirimʷii-(maata)Cor Scorpionis (Antares), summer 

PMc   *susu   breast, to suckle

Trukesettú-(n)her breast 
 ttúút, túttú-suck (of a nursing child) 
Mortlockesetúút, ttú-(n)breast, her breast 
Puluwatesetúútbreast, nipple 
Saipan Carolinianútt, úttú-(l)breast, her breast 
 túútsuckle, nurse (from a breast) 
Woleaianttú-(ú), ttú-(le)my breast, her breast 
Pulo-Annantútúbreast, suck mothers breast 
Proto-Chuukic*dúdú·breast, to suckle
Ponapeiandiidiher breast, to suckle, to nurse 
Mokilesediidibreast, suckle 
Marshalleseyittit, tittit, yitti-breast, nipple, teat 
Kusaieantwetwe-(l), titi-(n)her breast, breast of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zuzu-breast  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*susubreast  (Ross 1988)
Fijiansusuto nurse a baby 
 sucuto suck the breast 
Proto-Polynesian*huhunipple, breast 
Sa’asusubreast, milk, to suck the breast 
Bugotususuuwomans breast, milk, to suck the breast 
Laususubreast, suckle 
Arosisusubreast, to suckle 
Kwaiosusubreast, breast milk, to suckle 
Proto-Kimbe*susuto suck, breast 
Proto-Austronesian*supsupsip, suck  (Blust 1989:167)

Note that Yapese thuuth ‘breast’ appears to be a loan from Ulithian.

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