Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

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Sa    Se    Si    So    Su    

PMc   *-Saa, mee-Saa   interrogative suffix

Proto-Austronesian(mee)-t, (mee)-tawhat? 
 (pʷaa)-t, (pʷa)-tawhy? 
Puluwatese(mee)-tawhat?, why? 
Saipan Carolinian(mee)-t, (mee)-tawhat? 
 (bʷe)-tawhy, suppose, what if 
Woleaian(me)-ta, (me)-ttaawhat? 
Pulo-Annan(me)-ta [sic]what? 
Proto-Chuukic*-daa, (mee)-daa·interrogative suffix
Ponapeianda, daa, daa-(mε)what? 
 (mεε)-ndawhy? to what purpose? 
Marshallesetahwhat?, which? 
Kiribatiraawhat (something)? (follows the noun) 
Kusaieanε, (me)-εwhat? 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zaa·interrogative suffix (Geraghty 1983)
Tonganhaa·interrogative suffix
Sa’ataa, taha·interrogative suffix
Lautaa·interrogative suffix
Kwaiotaa·interrogative suffix

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *Safa ‘what? what relationship?’. See also Proto-Micronesian (?) *faiSa ‘do what, what?’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *pʷa-ki-da ‘because, why’.

PMc   *Safa   what? what relationship?

Trukesetafa-what relationship? 
Puluwatesetefá-, tefe-what relationship? where? 
Saipan Caroliniantafa-, tefa-what relationship? 
Proto-Chuukic*dafa-·what? what relationship?
Marshalleseteye-what relationship? 
Kiribatiraawhat? (follows noun) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zafawhat?  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Nakanai*zova, zavawhat? 

— Cf. —

Ponapeiandεpεhow many? how much? 
Mokilesedɔpɔhow many? how much? 

PMc   *Sake   up, upward

Trukese-tá, táá-up, upward, eastward, rising 
Puluwatese-tá·up, upward
Saipan Carolinian-tá·up, upward
Woleaian-tage, tage-(li-alo)sunrise 
Pulo-Annan-take·up, upward
Proto-Chuukic*dake·up, upward
Ponapeian-da, dak·up, upward
Mokilese-da, dak·up, upward
Marshallesetak, -tah-eastward, upward 
 taki-(n haḷ)sunrise 
Kiribati-rake·up, upward
Kusaiean-εk, -yakupward 
Proto–Eastern Oceaniczake-fgo up, climb  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*sake·up, upward (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*hake·up, upward
Fijiancake·up, upward
Sa’ata’e·up, upward
Proto-Kimbe*saqeto climb up 
Uraustronesisch*sakay·up, upward

See Marck (1994:324) Proto-Micronesian *sake ‘up(wards), east(wards)’ and Proto-Micronesian *[sS]ake ‘ride’.

PMc   *Sali   in a line or row

Trukesetenbe in line 
 teni-(n)line of 
 tettenline, rank, row, list, grade, generation, lineage 
Puluwatesetáli-(n)line of 
Saipan Caroliniantáli-lrow of, line of 
 tálmake rows or lines 
 táliplant (something) in rows 
Saipan Carolinian·Tteli-(n)row of, line of 
 teliplant (something) in rows 
Woleaianttaliline up, form a line 
 -talirows, lines (in counting) 
 (ge)-taliwalk in a line, form a procession 
Proto-Chuukic*dali·in a line or row
Ponapeiandεlto move in great numbers, to swarm 
Marshallesetalprocession of mourners or tribute bearers 
Kusaieanεlmarch, parade 

— Cf. —

Kiribatirinana row, rank, line 
 rinanstand in a row or line 

— Cf. also —

Sa’a(ta’a)-talaa line, row 
Arositara-iin a row 
Kwaiotalain a line 

PMc   *Sama   outrigger float

Trukesetaam, tame-(n)outrigger float, outrigger float of 
Puluwatesetaam, teme-(n)·outrigger float
Saipan Caroliniantaam, tama-(l)·outrigger float
Woleaiantaame, tema-li·outrigger float
Pulo-Annantaama, tama-·outrigger float
Proto-Chuukic*dama·outrigger float
Ponapeiandaam, dεmεoutrigger float, its outrigger float 
Mokilesedamoutrigger boom 
Marshallese(rey)tamoutrigger side of a canoe 
 tem-raksail wuth outrigger on south 
 tem-yaŋsail wuth outrigger on north 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zamaoutrigger  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiancama·outrigger float
Proto-Polynesian*hama·outrigger float
Proto-Oceanic*saman·outrigger float (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyamsail with outrigger out of water, tip (of a canoe) 

PMc   *Saŋa   inner thigh, crotch

Trukesetaaŋ, taŋa-(n)leg and foot together, his leg 
Saipan Caroliniantaaŋ, taŋa-(l)upper, inner part of the thigh, his upper thigh 
Satawalesetaŋa-(l)inside of his or her thigh 
Proto-Chuukic*daŋa·inner thigh, crotch
Ponapeiandaaŋ, dεŋεthigh, his thigh 
Marshallese(law)-teŋay, (lew)-teŋayinside of thigh, crotch 
Kiribatiraŋa, raŋa-(na)leg, thigh, his leg 
Kusaieaneŋæarea between two legs 
Proto-Oceanic*saŋabifurcation  (Ross 1988)
Sa’ataŋathe crotch of the legs 
 taŋataŋaforked stick 
Arositaŋacrotch, fork of the legs 
Kwaio[ma]-taŋacrotch, branching place 
West Nakanaisalathigh, groin 
Uraustronesisch*saŋafork, branching 

— Cf. —

Puluwateseheeŋanportions of arm above and below elbow, leg below knee, thigh, portions between nodes (as of sugar cane and bamboo) 
Kusaieantæŋʷe-(s)a mode of sexual intercourse 

PMc   *-Seke   friendly, kind

Ponapeian(ka)-dεkkind, generous 
Mokilese(ka)-dεkbe kind 
Pingilapese(ka)-dεkfriendly, kind 
Kiribatirekechum, close friend 
 (kaka)-wʌkgetting friendly or acquainted 

PMc   *Siwa   nine

Trukesettiiw, ttiwe-, ttiwa-, ttiwu-·nine
Puluwatesettiw, ttiwa-·nine
Saipan Caroliniantiiw, tiwa-, tiwo-·nine
Satawalesetiiw, tiwa-·nine
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ziwa·nine (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*siwa·nine (Ross 1988)
Sa’asiwe, siwa-nanine, ninth 
Proto-Nakanai*(wala)-siwo (<*walu-siwa?)·nine

— Cf. —


See also Proto–Central Micronesian *Siwa-ua ‘nine (general class of things)’and Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *diwa-ike ‘ninety’.

PCMc   *Siwa-ua   nine (general class of things)

Trukesettiwu-uw, (e)-ttiwu-uwa-(n)ninth 
Saipan Caroliniantiwo-ownine 
Saipan Carolinian·Ttiwo-uwnine 
Woleaiantiwo-uwe·nine (general class of things)
Pulo-Annantio-ow·nine (general class of things)
Proto-Chuukic*diwo-uwa·nine (general class of things)
Ponapeianduwa-w·nine (general class of things)
Mokileseduɔ-w·nine (general class of things)

See Proto-Micronesian *Siwa ‘nine’, Proto-Micronesian *-ua ‘general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)’.

PMc   *Solo   peak, hill

Trukesetoon, tone-(n)peak, high point, pinacle, mast-head, peak of 
Puluwatesetool, tolo-(n)mast-head, mast-head of 
Saipan Caroliniantoolmountain peak 
Proto-Chuukic*dolo·peak, hill
Ponapeiandoolsmall mountain, hill 
Mokileseand Png dolmountain 
Marshalleseteḷwmountain, hill 
 ḷwettop of canoes mast (metathesis) 
Kusaieaneol, ɔlmountain 
 yolpile, stack 
 yolimake (something) in a pile 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*zolo·peak, hill
Fijiancoloinland country, mountain country 
Sa’atolohill, hill country 
Arositorohill, inland country 
Kwaiotolomountains, mountainous interior 

— Cf. —


See Marck (1994:320) Proto-Micronesian *zolo.

PMc   *Soru-   near, beside

Marshallesetirʷi-, (yi)-tirʷi-next to, close to, near, beside 
Kiribati(i)-rou-(na)with, by, on account of him 
Kusaieanyɔrɔ-(l)his vicinity 
 yuru-(n)vicinity of, near 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *aro- ‘shore, beach, vicinity’.

PMc   *Suu, SuuSuu, Suu-fi-   dive, bathe

Trukesedive, duck the head under water 
 túútúbathe, take a shower, be bowed (of the head) 
 túú-fidive for (something) 
Mortlockesetúútúto bathe 
Puluwateseto dive deep 
 túútúto swim, bathe 
 túú-fi-(y)to dive for (something) 
Saipan Caroliniantu, túto submerge, dive from the surface 
 túútúto bathe 
 túú-fito dive for (something) 
Satawalesetúútúto bathe 
 tuu-(loŋo)to dive in 
Ulithianthuthu [sic]bathe 
Pulo-Annantúttúú [sic]to bathe 
Proto-Chuukic*dúú, dúúdúú, dúú-fi-·dive, bathe
Ponapeiandugo under water, dive 
 duu-pdive for (something) 
 duu-pbathe (someone) 
Kusaieanyi, yiyibathe, take a shower 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*si[qØ]u-vwash  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’asuu, suu-hidive, sink, dive for 
Bugotuhuuto dive, sink 
Lausuuto dive, sink 
Bugotuhuuto sink, dive, go down 
Lausuuto dive, set [of heavenly bodies] 
Arosisuu, suu-hidive, dive for 
Kwaiosuu, suu-fi-[a]dive, sink, dive for 

— Cf. —

Kusaieantwetweto wash twe-n wash, soak (something) 
 twe-nwash, soak (something) 
Fijiansupour water on things, irrigate 
 su-yapour water on (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*suqipour water on  (Geraghty 1983)

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*jo[bpv]uto dive  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*[sj]obudescend, dive 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*ziuq·dive, bathe (Blust 1983–84)

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *dupʷu₃ ‘set (of sun), go down’.

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