Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


ta    te    ti    to    tu    

PMc   *taa, taa-ki   chop

Woleaiansaasato gash, slash, cut, split, chop 
 saa-gi-(i)stab it, slash it, gash it, cut it, chop it 
Marshallesejek, jékjékto cut, hew, chop, prune, salute with the hands 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRa(Geraghty 1990, who infers a Proto-Micronesian *taa

— Cf. —

Kusaieantiyεtdissect, cut up 
 tiyedissect (it), cut (it) open 
 tiyok, tiyɔkget out 

Marshallese short vowel unexplained.

PCMc   *taa, taa-ni   to like, be fond

Trukesesaasato like, be fond 
 saa-nito like it 
Kiribatitaa-nabe enamored of, like (something) 

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *taka, taka-ni ‘stomach, have stomach for’.

PCMc   *taapa   knife

Trukesesaap, saape-(n)knife, knife of 
 taabato pare (something), whittle, scrape 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanwooden knife 

PCMc   *taaw(ae)   ashamed

Trukesesááwbe ashamed 
 sááwá-ási-nibe ashamed because of him 
 (á)-ssááwembarrasing, causing embarrassment 
Puluwateseháwo [sic]·ashamed
Saipan Carolinian·Thááw·ashamed
Kiribatitaawa-iashamed because of failure to succeed 

PCMc   *tae, tae-ki-   removed

Trukesesá, sáá-be removed, emptied 
 sáá-siremove it 
Puluwateseháá-ki-(y)remove (as clothes) 
Saipan Caroliniansáá-ghilift, move, or remove (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tháá-gilift, move, or remove (something) 
Woleaiansaa-saapeel off 
 saa-gi-(i)peel it off 
Proto-Chuukic*tae, tae-ki-·removed
Kiribatitaeextracted, drawn out 
 tae-ki-(a)root it up, tear it up 

PMc   *tafa, tafa-si   to cut in pieces, slice

Satawalesesafasafto cut, slice 
 safá-ticut or slice (something) 
Woleaiantafatafeto cut, slice, write (by carving letters) 
 #tefa-(a), #tefa-(li-i)cut it, slice it 
Ulithiantaftafto slice 
Pulo-Annantadato slice soft things 
 tadatadato slice, cut 
Proto-Chuukic*tafa, tafatafa·to cut in pieces, slice
Ponapeiansapto cut into pieces 
 sεpεcut (something) into pieces 
Marshallesejayto cut, chop 
 tweto chop or cut (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tafa, tafa-sito cut  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiantavacut with a knife 
Proto-Polynesian*tafato cut 
Sa’aaha, aha-sito cut, score, notch 
Arosiaha, aha-sito cut, sever, score, notch 
Kwaioafato mark, incise 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*tabascut away underbrush  (Blust 1980:92)

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annantapatapato cut, split 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *[sS]afi₁ ‘pick, pluck, tear off’, Proto-Micronesian *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-ŋi- ‘to gather, pick’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *daf[ei] ‘be open’, Proto-Micronesian *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki ‘be cut, lopped, to cut (something) off’.

PWMc   *tafaali   again, return

Trukesesefáán, sáfáán, sefááni-(n), sefáánni-(n), sefánni-(n)again, once more, return, return of 
Mortlockesesεfáálido (something) again, return (something) 
Puluwateseháfááll, háfalli-, háfááli-·again, return
Saipan Caroliniansefáál, sefáále-·again, return
Saipan Carolinian·Thafáál·again, return
Satawalesesefáán·again, return
Woleaiantefaali·again, return
Pulo-Annan-tadani·again, return
Proto-Chuukic*tafaali, tafaalli·again, return
Ponapeiansapaalrepeat an activity, do again 
Mokilesejapaal·again, return
Marshallesejahaḷturn a vehicle 

— Cf. —

Kusaieantæpʌlto turn 

PMc   *tai, ta-   not

Trukese-se, se-, sa-·not
Saipan Carolinian-se·not
Saipan Carolinian·T-he·not
Woleaian-tai, ta-·not
Ulithian-te, te-, -ta·not (Bender et al. 1984)
Pulo-Annanta-not (negative prefix) 
Proto-Chuukic*-tai, ta-·not
Ponapeiansa-, sai(kintε)not yet 
Marshalleseja-, ja-(kʷkʷiréyréy)seldom play, not be athletic (kwkwiréy play) 
 ja-(rreŋʷreŋʷ)deaf, hard of hearing (reŋw hear) 
Kiribati-tainegative imperative aspect marker 
Kusaieanse-, sʌ-, sʌ-·not

PMc   *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma   sharpen

Trukeseseyi-misharpen it 
 seyi-m, #seyi-mi-(n)whetstone 
Mortlockesesayisey·sharpen (Bender et al. 1984)
Saipan Carolinianseisey, sei-mi·sharpen
Woleaiantaitei, tai-mi-(i)·sharpen
Pulo-Annantaetae, tae-mi [sic]·sharpen
Proto-Chuukic*taitai, tai-mi-·sharpen
Ponapeiansεysεybe sharpened 
Marshallesejémjémsharpen, whet 
 jem-(ey)sharpen (something) 
Kiribatitai-mi-(a)sharpen it 
 tai-masharpen (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*tajim·sharpen (Ross 1988)

PWMc   *takaka   slice of copra

Trukesesakka-n, #ssaka-nslice of it (of copra or meat of ripe coconut) 
 -ssakslice of copra 
 (a)-ssakto cut copra, extract copra from the coconut shell 
 (a)-sakka, #(a)-ssakato cut it (copra) 
Puluwatese#haakk, hakka-nhalved husked coconut shell, slice of it 
 -hakkslice of copra (in counting) 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-sakkslices of copra 
 (a)-sakkato slice (copra) 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a)-hakkslices of copra 
 (a)-hakkato slice (copra) 
Woleaiantegagúshell (of skull, coconut), cup 
 tegagú-ch-chimʷe (< *tegagú-li-shimʷe)skull 
Pulo-Annantakkakkú-(ase)navigators cup with a handle 
Proto-Chuukic*takak[aú]·slice of copra
Marshallesejekakcopra pieces taken out of the shell 

— Cf. —

Mokilesedakdak, daka-jremove meat from a coconut 
 (óriŋ) dakdakcopra 
 takatakabe very dry (as the kernel of a ripe coconut) 
Kusaieankakicopra, mature coconut 

PMc   *takuru   back (of body)

Trukesesékúr, sékúrú-·back (of body)
Mortlockesesakúré-·back (of body)
Puluwatesehakúr·back (of body)
Saipan Caroliniansaghúr·back (of body)
Saipan Carolinian·Thagúr·back (of body)
Satawalesesakúrú-·back (of body)
Woleaiantaguru·back (of body)
Pulo-Annantalúkú·back (of body)
Proto-Chuukic*takúrú·back (of body)
Marshallesejakʷirshell of turtle or crab 
Kiribatiakuu(showing loss of *t when followed by *k
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*takuRu·back (of body) (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Kusaieantok, tɔkɔ-(l), tuku-(n)back, his back, back of 
Proto-Oceanic*takuR, dakuR·back (of body) (Ross 1988)
Fijiandaku·back (of body)

PMc   *tala, tala-[sS]i   slack, loosen

Trukesesene-tiuntie, loosen (a rope) 
Puluwatesehále-ti-(y)untie, disentangle, excuse, pardon (something) 
Saipan Caroliniansáli-tito relax or reduce (tension), make peace between (people) 
Satawalesesáni-tiuntie (something) 
Woleaiantela-ti-(i)untangle, free, solve (something) 
Pulo-Annantana-tito save, rescue, forgive 
Proto-Chuukic*tala-di-·slack, loosen
Mokilesejala-dto release or untie (rope) 
 jal-d-εkbe free, be ones own boss 
Marshallesejaḷjaḷto loosen, unwind, unsnarl 
Kiribatitana-rato loose (anothers hold), take off (ornaments after the dance) 
 (ma)-tanabe slack 
 (ka-ma)-tana-ato loosen, slacken (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tala, tala-[sz]i·slack, loosen
Fijiantala, tala-caclear rubbish away 
Proto-Polynesian*talauntie, undo 

PMc   *talai   adze

Trukesesene, senee-(n)adze, adze of 
 senee-nichop (it) with an adze 
Saipan Caroliniansele·adze
Saipan Carolinian·Thele·adze
Marshallesejéljélstone axe 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’alato break off or lop (of branches) 
Arosiara, ara-ito chop, chop down (a tree) 
 ara-ra’ito chop 

PCMc   *tale   clear, distinct

Trukesesáná-, sáne- ?prominent, standing out 
Ponapeiansansalclear, evident, obvious 
Mokilesejanjalclear (of speech), open, obvious 
Kiribatitaneclear, distinct 

PMc   *tali   rope

Trukesesáán, seni-(n)rope, rope of 
 seni, seni-iycoil or wind (a rope) 
Mortlockesesáál, sεlé-(n)·rope
Puluwateseháál, háli-(n)rigging, rigging of 
Saipan Caroliniansáál, sáli-lrope, rope of 
 sálito coil (a rope) 
Saipan Carolinian·Thelito coil (a rope) 
Satawalesesáánrope, line, sennit 
Woleaiantaali, tan-nirope, line, rope of 
 tali-itug or pull (a rope) 
Pulo-Annantaani, tani-rope 
Sonsorolesetaanirope, string 
Ponapeiansaalrope, cord, string 
 salto gather rope, haul on a line 
 jalto wind (rope) 
Marshallesejaljélroll up or coil 
 jaliyroll or coil up (rope) 
Kiribatitanto turn 
 tanato wind sennit on the left hand 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*talirope  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiantalirope, plait, interweave 
 dalia pandanus tree from which rope is made 
Proto-Polynesian*taLito plait 
Sa’a’alia cord 
Arosiarirope [tari rope of special kind is an evident loan] 
West Nakanaitali-ato coil [rope] 
 tali [la-sulabe]make a vine binding for a climber's feet 

— Cf. —

Yapesetaelrope, string 

PCMc   *tali-   facing

Trukeseseni-(kásá)board connecting outrigger booms on the lee (ásá) side 
Marshallesejaḷ-to face (with directional suffixes) 
Kiribatitan-, tani-at the facing side (of an island), facing (hither or away) (with directional suffixes) 

Marshallese heavy results from assimilation to following directionals, which begin with heavy consonants.

PCMc   *talia   side dish of meat, fish, or sauce

Trukeseseni, seniya-(n)side dish, his side dish 
 seniye-niput as a side dish to (something) 
Puluwatesehááliy [sic]accompanying food 
 háliya-le-(y)to eat (something) as accompanying food 
Saipan Caroliniansáliya-, sáliyáli, sáliilimeat or sauce eaten together with rice or taro 
Proto-Chuukic*taliya·side dish of meat, fish, or sauce
Ponapeiansalieat meat or fish, the meat or fish part of a meal 
 saliεeat (the meat or fish part of a meal) 
Marshallesejaléyléymeat course, sauce, gravy 
Kiribatitanna (<*tania)sauce, relish, appetizer 

PCMc   *talilapa   builder, bind together

Trukesesennap, sannapcanoe builder 
Puluwatesehállap, héllap, hállapá-nbuilder, builder of 
Saipan Caroliniansellapexpert canoe builder 
Saipan Carolinian·Thallap·builder, bind together
Woleaiansennapecanoe builder, master craftsman 
Proto-Chuukic*tallapa (< *talilapa)·builder, bind together
Kiribatitannaba-ato wind (something) up (as fishline) 

PMc   *taliŋa   ear, mushroom, fungus

Trukeseseniŋ, seniŋa-(n)ear, his ear 
 seniŋe-(n soomá), seniŋe-(n énú), seniŋe-(n soope)any of a large number of fungi (lit. ghost's ear, spirit's ear) 
 (pʷo)-sseniŋmoldy smell, earthy smell, to smell moldy 
Mortlockesesáliŋa-·ear, mushroom, fungus
Puluwateseháliŋ, háliŋá-(n), háliŋá-(n hoomá)tree fungus, mushroom 
Saipan Caroliniansáliŋ, (bʷoo)-sáliŋsmell musty or moldy from long storage 
Saipan Carolinian·Theliŋ·ear, mushroom, fungus
Satawalesesáliŋ, sáliŋa-·ear, mushroom, fungus
 taliŋa-(a)listen to, obey 
Pulo-Annantaniŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus
Sonsorolesetáriŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus
Proto-Chuukic*taliŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus
Ponapeiansalεŋ, salεŋεear, his ear 
 salεŋε-n εnifungus, mushroom (lit. ear of ghost) 
Mokilesejaleŋ-(walek)big-ear taro 
Kiribatitaniŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taliŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiandaliga·ear, mushroom, fungus
Proto-Polynesian*taliŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus
Rotumanfaliga·ear, mushroom, fungus
Sa’a’aliŋeear, mushroom 
Proto-Kimbe*taliŋaear, edible fungus 
Proto-Austronesian*taliŋa·ear, mushroom, fungus

PMc   *tama   father

Trukesesaam, seme-(n)father, father of 
 sama-(n), sema-(n)his father 
 samasamtreat as a father 
 seme-niacquire as a father 
Puluwatesehama-(n)his father 
 hamá-(n)father of 
Saipan Caroliniansaamfather 
 sema-(l)his father 
Saipan Carolinian·Thaam·father
Satawalesesaam, sema-·father
Woleaiantaame, tema-(li)father, father of 
 tema-li-(i)have him as a father 
Pulo-Annantaama, tama-·father
Sonsorolesetama [sic]·father
Ponapeiansaam, sεmεfather, his father 
Mokilesejema-(a)his father 
Kiribatitama-(na)his father 
Kusaieantʌmʷε-(l)his father 
Proto-Oceanic*tama·father (Ross 1988)
Sa’a’ama-father [referential] 
 ma’afather [vocative] 
Laumaafather [vocative] 
Proto-Austronesian*tama·father (Ross 1988)

PWMc   *tanisi   finger or toe

Ponapeiansεndappendage, finger, toe 
 sεndi-(n pεε)finger 
Mokilesejaid, jandi-(n)finger or toe, finger or toe of 
Marshallesejanit, janti-(n)finger, crab claw, finger of 

PMc   *tanitani   skin disease

Trukesesenisentinea, ringworm 
 (pʷoo)-senisensmell of ringworm 
Ponapeiansensenskin disease caused by a fungus, be moldy or old tasting 
 (pʷoo)-sensenmoldy smelling 
Marshallesejanskin disease, white spots on skin 
Kiribatitantanspotted (as the skin) 
Kusaieantʌna skin disease 

PMc   *tano   ground, low

Trukesesóón, sónu-n, ó-sónalevel ground, leveled site of, make it level (of ground) 
 (teki)-sónbe low, humble 
 (mó)-sónó-sónmeek, humble, lowly 
Puluwatesehóón, hóno-surface, ground 
 hóno-(fiR)be smooth, level, flat 
 hónto be lower 
 (taki)-hónbe low, short 
Saipan Caroliniansóssólbe low, be near the ground, be low in rank or grade 
Satawalesesóólland, soil 
Woleaiantaalo, talo-earth, soil, ground 
Pulo-Annantotano [sic]earth, ground 
Proto-Chuukic*tano·ground, low
Ponapeiansɔnaligned, settled, arranged, ordered 
Kiribatitanoearth, soil 
Proto-Oceanic*tanoq·ground, low (Ross 1988)
Bugotutanoearth, ground 
Arosianoground, [i]-ano down 
Kwaioanoland, ground 
Proto-Nakanai*-tanodown, westward 

— Cf. —

Woleaiansaalo, salo-, taalo, talo-west, downward 
 -salobelow, downside 

— Note —

Tongantanoplace of burial, cemetery 
 tanuto bury or intern (something) 
Bugotutanoearth, ground 
 tanu-vito dip, soak in water 
Proto-Oceanictanoqearth  (Ross 1988)
Uraustronesisch*tanembury, plant 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *itano ‘deposited, put away’. See Marck (1994:317) Proto-Micronesian *tano ‘soil, earth, ground’.

PMc   *tano-mi-   to catch (water) in a container

Mortlockesesano-mi·to catch (water) in a container
Satawalesesólo-mi·to catch (water) in a container
Woleaiantalo-mi-(i)·to catch (water) in a container
Proto-Chuukic*tano-mi-·to catch (water) in a container
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tano·to catch (water) in a container
Fijiantano-alarge wooden bowl for preparing kava 
Bugotutanoto collect 

PMc   *tañifa   a small fish

Trukesesenif, senife-(n)herring, herring of 
Puluwatesehánif, hánifá-(y)anchovy, anchovy of 
Saipan Caroliniansálifspecies of small fish 
Proto-Chuukic*ta[nñ]ifa·a small fish
Mokilesejaypfish species 
Kusaieantʌia kind of fish 

PWMc   *taŋi   from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)

Trukeseseni·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Mortlockesesaŋε·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Puluwateseháŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Saipan Caroliniansáŋi, seŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Saipan Carolinian·Theŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Satawalesesáŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Woleaiantaŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Proto-Chuukic*taŋi·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Ponapeian-saŋfrom, in oposition to 
Mokilese-jaŋfrom, than 
Pingilapese-saŋ·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)
Marshallesejan·from (something), away from (usually suffixed to verbs)

The Marshallese n is unexpected.

PMc   *taŋi, taŋi-Si-   cry, weep

Mortlockesesáŋ, sáŋisáŋ·cry, weep
Puluwateseháŋ·cry, weep
Saipan Caroliniansáŋ, sáŋisáŋcry 
 sáŋi-ticry at (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·Theŋ·cry, weep
Woleaiantaŋi, taŋiteŋi·cry, weep
Pulo-Annantaŋi, taŋitaŋi·cry, weep
Sonsorolesetaŋi·cry, weep
Proto-Chuukic*taŋi, taŋitaŋi, taŋi-di-·cry, weep
Ponapeiansεŋ·cry, weep
Mokilesejɔŋ, jaŋi-d,cry, cry about (something) 
Pingilapesesεŋ·cry, weep
Marshallesejaŋ, jaŋi-tcry, cry for (someone) 
Kiribatitaŋ, taŋitaŋcry 
 taŋi-radesire, cry for (something) 
 (ka)-taŋitaŋto cause to cry 
 tʌŋibe sorry for 
Proto–Eastern Oceanictaŋi-z·cry, weep (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiantagi, tagi-ca·cry, weep
Proto-Polynesian*taŋi·cry, weep
Bugotutaŋi, taŋi-hi·cry, weep
Lauaŋi, aŋi-si·cry, weep
Arosiaŋi, aŋi-hi, aŋi-si·cry, weep
Proto-Kimbe*taŋi·cry, weep
Proto-Oceanic*taŋis·cry, weep (Ross 1988)
Uraustronesisch*taŋis·cry, weep

PMc   *taŋiri   tuna

Trukeseseŋir, seŋiri-(n)yellow tail tuna, tuna of 
Mortlockesesaŋúrbig tuna 
Puluwateseháŋiryellowfin tuna 
Woleaiantaŋiriking-size tuna 
Marshallese(mʷe)-jaŋirporcupine fish 
Kiribatitaŋiiyellow-fin tuna  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taŋiRipelagic fish  (Geraghty 1990)
Arosiaŋirishoal of porpoises 
Uraustronesisch*taŋiRikind of fish 

— Cf. —

West Nakanaitarigaa fish 

PMc   *tao   a thwart, tie

Trukesessóthwart of a canoe 
 (fó)-ssóstep or rung of a ladder 
Puluwatesehó, hóó-(n)canoe thwart, thwart of 
Saipan Carolinianssó, sóócanoe thwart 
Woleaianttóócanoe thwart 
Pulo-Annanttaocanoe thwart 
Proto-Chuukic*ta[wØ]o, tta[wØ]o·a thwart, tie
Ponapeiansɔɔ-(roŋ)ridgepole of a building 
Marshallesejewjewoutrigger spar, ties between spar and outrigger 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tao·a thwart, tie
Bugotutaoridge, saddle of a mountain, [labu] tao to nail crosswise 
 [labu] taoto nail crosswise 
Arosiaoaoto extend beyond as something sticking out 
Kwaioaoaoshelf in a house 

— Cf. —

Fijiansokaribs of boat 
Proto-Austronesian*seŋkarcross seat of boat  (Blust 1970:142)

PCMc   *tapa, ka-tapa   speak, spoken

Trukesea-pasasay it, utter it 
 kka-pas, kka-pase-(n)speech, talk, utterance, language, to speak, say, talk, speak of 
Mortlockesea-pasato speak it 
 kka-pasword, language 
Puluwateseya-pahato say it, speak it 
 kka-pah, kka-pahá-(n)speech, word, language, speak of 
Saipan Caroliniana-pahato say (something) 
 kka-pas, kke-pasword, speech, talk, language 
Saipan Carolinian·Tkka-pahword, speech, talk, language 
 a-pahato say (something) 
Satawalesea-pasasay it 
 kka-pasword, language 
Woleaiankke-pateword, language, speech 
 kkekke-pate, kke-pate-patebe talking 
 -patea fragment of speech (in counting) 
Pulo-Annantapatapasay, announce 
 tapaspeak about or announce (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*pata, ka-pata, kka-pata or *tapa(all Chuukic languages. represented here have undergone metathesis with exception of Pulo-Annan
Kiribatika-tabataba-ato call (a bird) for ensnaring 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanpaata, pata-a piece that is cut out 
 kapakapato talk behind one's back 

This may be the same root as Proto-Micronesian *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i ‘to answer’.

PMc   *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki   lift up, carry, bear in ones hands

Trukesesapbe holding up with open palm (of the hand) 
 sapa, sassapato hold (something) up in the open palm 
Mortlockesesapacarry (something) with both hands, to support (something or someone) 
Satawalesesepato support, hold up (something) 
Ponapeiansapεto carry (something) in ones arms 
Mokilesejapa-kto lift (something) up from the rear end (as in catching turtles) 
Marshallesejepaksupport, hold up 
Kiribatitabetabeto engage in carrying, carry repeatedly 
 tabe-kato lift or take (something) up in the hands 
 tabe-ki-(a)lift it up 
Kusaieantaptapto support, uphold, bear 
 tahpʌ-kto support, uphold, or bear (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tapa, tape·lift up, carry, bear in ones hands
Fijiantabe, tabe-ato hold or carry in the hands 
 tabetabethe bringing of food in baskets 
Sa’a’apa-aa staff 
Arosiabaabato carry 
Uraustronesisch*tapakflat of the hand, sole of the foot 

— Cf. —

Fijiantabaupper arm (of human), foreleg (of animal) 
 taba-(caca)single-handed, odd, having no match 
Lauaba-hand, arm, leaf 
 apa’apawing, shoulder, leaves 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taba·lift up, carry, bear in ones hands

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi ‘to help’.

PMc   *tapa, tapa-[kŋ]i   to answer

Ponapeiansapε-ŋto respond, answer 
Mokilesejapɔ-ŋanswer, talk back to (someone) 
 japɔ-ŋekto give an answer 
Kiribatitaba-kato snap at (someone, as a dog), kick (at someone, as a horse) 
Kusaieantopan answer 
 topu-kto answer (someone) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taba·to answer
Bugotutabato pay, wages, reward 

This may be the same root as Proto–Central Micronesian *tapa, ka-tapa ‘speak, spoken’.

PMc   *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki   be cut, lopped, to cut (something) off

Trukesesepbe cut off, lopped off (of coconut fronds and pandanus leaves) 
 sepesepcutting or lopping off (of leaves and fronds) 
 sepe-sito cut it or lop it off 
Mortlockesesepasepcutting off 
 sepa-kecut down (leaves of anything) 
 sepa-tecut down (coconut leaves) 
Puluwatesehepá-ki-ycut it 
Saipan Caroliniansapasapmachete with broad blade 
 sápe-ghichop it with a machete 
Saipan Carolinian·Thapahapmachete 
 hapi-gichop it with a machete 
Satawalesesapasaplarge knife 
 sepá-kicut, lop off, trim (something) 
Woleaiantapeto cut (usually leaves) 
 tepa-gi-icut it 
 tapetapebig knife 
Pulo-Annantapatapato cut, split 
 tapa-kisplit it 
Proto-Chuukic*tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki-·be cut, lopped, to cut (something) off
Ponapeiansapto cut into pieces 
 sεpεcut (something) into pieces 
 sapa-kto harvest (of bananas) 
Mokilesejapcut with an upward stroke 
 japa-kcut (something) with an upward stroke 
Marshallesejépjépcut off, shorten, mow 
 jepa-kcut, hack, chop off, split, slash (something) 
Kusaieansipsipcut, chop, or slice into small pieces 
 sipi-kcut, chop, or slice (something) 

— Cf. —

Fijiantebaa fighting iron axe 
Sa’aopadivide, separate 
Bugotutobifell (a tree), clear (the bush) 
Lauobatake from, separate, divide 
Kwaioobato beat down undergrowth 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*tabascut away underbrush  (Blust 1980:92)
Proto-Austronesian*tebaSto cut, clear vegetation  (Blust 1986:97)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tafa, tafa-si ‘to cut in pieces, slice’.

PMc   (?)   *tapa₁   a fish

Kiribatitabaa fish 
Kusaieantæpa kind of fish 

PMc   *tapa₂   cheek

Trukesesaap, sapa-(n), sape-(n)cheek, his cheek, cheek of 
Mortlockesesaap, sapa-(n)·cheek
Puluwatesehapa-(n), hapá-(n)·cheek
Saipan Carolinian(au)-sap·cheek
Saipan Carolinian·T(au)-hap·cheek
Satawalesesaap, sepa-(n)·cheek
Woleaiantaape, tepa-(le)·cheek
Ulithiantapa-(l)his cheek 
Pulo-Annantaapa, tapa-cheek, gill (of fish) 
Sonsorolesetapa [sic]·cheek
Ponapeiansεpεhis cheek 
Mokilesejɔp, jɔpɔcheek, his cheek 
Marshallesejap, jepa-, jepe-·cheek
Kiribatitaba-(na)his cheek 
Kusaieantʌpæ-(l)his cheek 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taba·cheek
Sa’a’apapart, side, half 
Lauaba-hand, arm, part, leaf 
Bugotutabasea shore 
Arosiabahalf, part, side 

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *tape₂ ‘face, turn’.

PMc   *tapa₃   be caught, snagged

Trukesesapbe caught, snagged, stuck, hung up 
Puluwatesehapbe taut, snagged, caught, be late, detained 
Proto-Chuukic*tapa·be caught, snagged
Uraustronesisch*taban.·be caught, snagged

PMc   *tapaka[wØ]u   a mat

Satawalesesepaawmat made from young coconut leaves 
Woleaiantapegaucoconut leaf mat 
 tapegau-u-(we)put a coconut mat on it 
Pulo-Annantapakaúyoung, white, unopened coconut leaf 
Proto-Chuukic*tapakau·a mat
Marshallesejépkawcoarse floor mat 
Kusaieansahpkʌmat sewn of pandanus leaves 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tapakau·a mat
Tongantapakaularge coconut leaf suitable for use in making floor mats 
Samoantapa’aucoconut-leaf floor mat 

Puluwatese sepaawo (sic) ‘coconut leaf mat’ is clearly a loan from another Chuukic language, and the Kusaiean form may be a loan from Marshallese.

PCMc   *tape₁   busy

Marshallesejépplace of work 
Kiribatitabebusy, engaged, employed 
 tabethe state of being employed 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki ‘lift up, carry, bear in one’s hands’, Proto-Micronesian *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ŋi ‘to help’.

PCMc   *tape₂   face, turn

Trukesesap, sápface, present a side in a given direction, with directional suffixes sape-nó, sápe-nó, sape-tá, sápe-tá, sape-to, sápe-to, sape-tiw, sápe-tiw, sape-wow, sápe-wow, sape-wu, sápewu 
 (á)-sápato turn (something) to face in another direction 
 (á)-sápásápi-n (ppéwút)the warding off of (sorcery) 
Saipan Caroliniansápe-face or proceed (in a direction) (with directional suffix) 
Saipan Carolinian·Thapface or proceed (in a certain direction) 
Woleaiansapeturn, face 
Proto-Chuukic*tape·face, turn
Kiribati(ka)-tabe-ato divert one from what he is doing, to interrupt 
 (ka)-taba-ato give way, to turn aside to let another pass 

— Cf. —

Kusaieantæpʌ-lto turn (something) 

— Cf. also —


See also Proto-Micronesian *tapa₂ ‘cheek’.

PMc   *tapia   bowl, constellation Delphinus

Trukesesepi, sepiya-(n)bowl, dish, platter, plate, constellation Delphinus, his bowl 
 sepiye-niacquire (a bowl) 
Mortlockesesapi, sapiye-(y)bowl, my bowl 
Puluwatesehápiy, hápeybowl 
 hápiyá-ni-(y)keep or own (a bowl) 
Saipan Caroliniansápi, sápiya-(l)bowl, his bowl 
Saipan Carolinian·Thepi·bowl, constellation Delphinus
Satawalesesápi·bowl, constellation Delphinus
Woleaiantapiyebowl, dish, constellation Delphinus 
Pulo-Annantappiia [sic]wooden plate 
Proto-Chuukic*tapiya·bowl, constellation Delphinus
Mokilesejapiwooden bowl 
Marshallesejapéywooden bowl, constellation Delphinus 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tabiRa·bowl, constellation Delphinus (Geraghty 1990)
Arosiabirabasket made of coconut leaf 
Bauabirawooden bowl 
Uraustronesisch*tambiR + an·bowl, constellation Delphinus

— Cf. —

Bugotutabiliwooden mortar 

PCMc   *tapʷakea   kind of turtle

Ponapeiansapʷakεhawksbill turtle 
Mokilesejapʷakɔspecies of turtle 
Marshallesejebʷakeyturtle with mutli-colored shell 
Kiribatitabʷakeakind of turtle with brilliant shell 

See also Trukese pʷáápʷá ‘turtle’ and Saipan Carolinian·T pʷáápʷá ‘turtle’, which may well be derived from *pʷakea.

PMc   *tapʷo   district, division

Trukesesóópʷ, sópʷu-tiw, sópʷo-notow, sópʷó-tá, sópʷu-ndistrict, village, lower district, eastern district, upper district, district of 
 -sopʷhalf, division, part (in counting) 
Puluwatesehóópʷ·district, division
Saipan Caroliniansóóbʷ, sóbʷo-(l), -sóbʷ·district, division
Saipan Carolinian·Thóóbʷ, hóbʷo-(n)·district, division
Satawalesesóópʷ, sópʷo-(n), -sópʷ·district, division
Woleaiantaabo, tabo-·district, division
Proto-Chuukic*tapʷo·district, division
Ponapeiansaapʷ, sapʷεland or homestead, his land 
Mokilesejapʷ, jɔpʷɔ-nland, island, land of 
Kusaieantæfʌ-(n)half of 

— Cf. —

Fijiantamoportion, section 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a ‘end, terminate’. See also Marck (1994:322) Proto–Central Micronesian *tap’o.

PMc   *tapʷo, tapʷo-[sS]a   end, terminate

Trukesesópʷbe at an end, terminated 
 (nee)- sópʷu-(n)end of it 
 sópʷó-(nóó-n)end of it 
 (ó)-sópʷamake an end of it 
 (ó)-sópʷu-(ni)make a termination feast for it 
 sópʷe-(ey)bring to completion 
Mortlockesesóópʷend part (of canoe) 
 hópʷe-(ló)finish completely 
Woleaiantaabo, tabo-end 
 tabo-(gapi)western end 
 (ge)-tabomake use of something before it disappears 
 sabobe finished, completed 
Pulo-Annantaapʷo, tapʷo-top, front, egde 
Proto-Chuukic*tapʷo·end, terminate
Ponapeiansapʷreach end of a round of kava 
Mokilesejɔpʷɔ-d, jɔpʷɔ-dɔ-pinnacle of a tree, growing end and its base 
Marshallesejabʷe-(n)point of, end of 
Kusaieansæfcome to an end 

— Cf. —

Fijiantavoside, end, area  (Geraghty 1983:374)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*tapusfinished, completed  (Blust 1986:96)

And cf. Proto-Micronesian *tapʷo ‘district, division’.

PMc   *tapʷu₁   taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo

Satawalese(a)-sópʷusópʷstated proscriptions, statements of taboos 
Woleaiantaabu, tabu-taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign) 
Pulo-Annantaapʷu, tapʷu-taboo, ban marked by a taboo sign 
Proto-Chuukic*tapʷu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Kiribatitabʷube taboo, forbidden, sacred 
 tabʷua taboo 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tabu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Fijiantabu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Proto-Polynesian*tapu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Sa’a’ápu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Bugotutabu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Lauabu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo
Kwaioabu·taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo

— Cf. —

Marshallesejabʷiytaboo (archaic) 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *tapʷu₂ ‘future negative’, Proto–Western Micronesian *aapʷa ‘no’.

PMc   *tapʷu₂   future negative

Trukese-sapʷfuture negative, will not, must not 
Mortlockesesapʷfuture negative 
Puluwatese-hapʷ, -hópʷexhortative negative 
Saipan Carolinian-sópʷ, -ssópʷfuture negative 
 sóóbʷno, I won't 
Saipan Carolinian·T-hóbʷfuture negative 
 haapʷno, I won't 
Satawalesesópʷfuture negative 
Marshallesejabʷnot (future) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tapu·future negative
Kwaioabu-be unable to ... [pref. to vb.] 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *tapʷu₁ ‘taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo’, Proto–Western Micronesian *aapʷa ‘no’.

PMc   *tara   sacred, holy

Ponapeiansara-wi, sara-wii-(n)sacred, holy, a religious service, magic, taboo, r. sacred of 
Mokilesejɔr-wiholy, sacred, a religious service, to hold a religious service 
Pingilapesesεrε-wi; ‘h.’·sacred, holy
Proto-Pohnpeic*tara-wii·sacred, holy
Marshallesejarpray, go to church 
Kusaiean(mʌ)-tælholy, hallowed, sacred 

Note that Kiribati tataro ‘to pray’ and taro-mauri ‘worship’ are loans from Polynesian, e.g., Samoan talo ‘to pray’ (obsolete).

PMc   (?)   *tara, tara-[sS]i   to look, look at

Ponapeiansara-(da)look upwards (da upwards) 
Mokilesejarbend back ones head 
Kiribati#taratarabe awake, to behold 
 tara-a (? < *taa-ra)to look at, behold (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRa-clook up  (Geraghty 1990)

Geraghty’s reconstruction relies heavily on the Micronesian forms, which he seems to misinterpret.

PMc   *taraa   squirrel fish

Trukesesarayellow-lined squirrel fish 
Mortlockesesara·squirrel fish
Puluwateseharaa kind of red fish 
Saipan Caroliniansaraspecies of edible reef fish 
Satawalesesera·squirrel fish
Woleaianseraaa kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*taraa·squirrel fish
Ponapeiansara·squirrel fish
Mokilesejarafish species, kind of soldier fish 
Marshallesejerah·squirrel fish
Kiribatitaaa fish 
West Nakanaitalahakind of fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRaqakind of fish (Adioryx spinifer, Holocendridae)  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Tonganta’aa fish (red, edible) 

PWMc   *taraki   to sail

Trukeseseresbe sailing, go on a sailing vessel, to reef a sail 
Mortlockeseserekto sail, be sailing 
Puluwateseherák·to sail
Saipan Carolinianserágh, serághi-·to sail
Satawaleseserák·to sail
Woleaianteragito sail, travel by water 
Pulo-Annantalekito sail, navigate 
Proto-Chuukic*taraki·to sail
Ponapeiansεrεk·to sail
Mokilesejɔrɔk·to sail
Marshallesejeraksail away 
 jerakrékgo sailing 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*teresail, float 

Yapese tarég ‘to sail’ is evidently a loan from a Chuukic source.

PCMc   *tarawa   barracuda

Trukesesaraw, sarawe-(n)barracuda, barracuda of 
Puluwateseharaw, harawá-(n)·barracuda
Saipan Caroliniansaraw·barracuda

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *turai ‘barracuda’.

PWMc   *tare   peer group, tier

Trukesesássár, sássári-(n)tier, storey (of house), step (of stair), shelf (of cupboard), tier of 
Saipan Caroliniansáre-(l), sári-(l)age mate of, peer of 
Saipan Carolinian·Thera-(n)his age mate, his peer 
Woleaiantaare, tera-(li)generation, age group, group of 
 -taregeneration (in counting) 
Proto-Chuukic*tare·peer group, tier
Marshallesejarcrowd, any group of people as a class, unit, or division 

— Cf. —

Fijiantara, tara-vato follow 
Arosiarehakin by marriage 
 tare-haa crowd (a loan?) 

PMc   *tare, tare-ki-   to move, remove

Trukesesárbe moving, not staying in one place 
 sári-simove (something) from its place, remove (something) 
 ssárbe capable of being elevated or lifted up 
Woleaiantera-gi-(i)to move or pull (something) up, move it up, lift it 
Proto-Chuukic*tare, tare-ki-·to move, remove
Kusaieantalto move, rub, paddle fast 
 talroot out 
 tælʌ-kroot (something) out, pull out, pull up (a net) 

PMc   *tari   child

Mortlockeseseri [sic]baby, child (up to seven yrs. old) 
Puluwateseháár, hári-child, infant 
Saipan Caroliniansáár, sári-·child
Satawalesesáárperson born at same time as oneself 
 sárisárbe born at the same time 
Woleaiansaari, sari-child, boy, girl, baby 
Ulithiantar (fefel) [sic]prepubescent girl 
Ponapeianseriher child 
Marshallese(ha)-jriychild, kid, toddler 
Kusaieantʌlikchild (presumably tʌli-k my child) 

Expressed final vowel without suffixed form in Mortlockese, Mokilese, Pingilapese, and Marshallese poses problem. Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian (?) *atarei ‘child’.

PCMc   *taro   to be able

Trukese(ó)-sóroffering to a spirit (i.e., make effecting) 
 (énúú)-sóreffecting spirit 
 (mʷááne)-sóreffecting man 
 (mʷááne)-sóreffecting man 
Marshallesejerʷbe able to 
Kiribatitao-(n)to engage in, go at, begin upon 

PMc   *ta[sS]i-   younger sibling

Trukeseseti-(pʷitur)youngest child of a woman (lit. skirt child) 
 seti-(peen)small child 
Marshallesejati-younger sibling 
Kiribatitari-sibling of same sex 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tazi·younger sibling (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*tazi·younger sibling (Blust 1978:108)
Proto-Oceanic*taji·younger sibling (Ross 1988)
Fijiantaciyounger sibling of same sex 
Sa’a’ási-sibling of same sex 
Bugotutahi-sibling of same sex 
Lauasisibling of opposite sex 
Arosiasisibling of opposite sex [sic] 
Kwaioasi-[na]younger sibling 
West Nakanaitari-younger sibling of same sex 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*aji(h)·younger sibling

PMc   *taSi   salt water

Trukesesáát, seti-, -set·salt water
Puluwateseháát, heti-·salt water
Saipan Caroliniansáát·salt water
Saipan Carolinian·Tháát·salt water
Satawalesesáát, sáti-·salt water
Woleaiantaati, tati-, saati, sati-·salt water
Pulo-Annantaati, tati-·salt water
Sonsorolesetaati·salt water
Proto-Chuukic*tadi·salt water
Ponapeianseed·salt water
Mokilesejed·salt water
Pingilapesesed·salt water
Marshallese(law)-jét·salt water
Kiribatitaari, -tari·salt water
Kusaiean(kifin)-tesalt water 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tazi·salt water (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*tasik, dasikFij taci  (Ross 1988)
Fijiantaci·salt water
Proto-Polynesian*tahi·salt water
Sa’a’ási·salt water
Bugotutahi·salt water
Arosiasi·salt water
Kwaioasi·salt water
Proto-Kimbe*dasi·salt water
Uraustronesisch*[tT]asik·salt water

See also Marck (1994:309) Proto-Micronesian *tazi.

PWMc   *tata   yellow snapper

Saipan Caroliniansaasspecies of yellow snapper 
Woleaiantaate, teta-a kind of yellow fish 
Proto-Chuukic*tata·yellow snapper
Marshallesejaja snapper 

PMc   *tau₁   person

Trukesesoo-(tupʷ), soo-(má), soo-(pe)departed (dead) person, corpse, ghost 
Puluwatesehoo-(tupʷ), hoo-(má)departed person, ghost 
Saipan Caroliniansoo-(má), soo-(tubʷ)respectful term for one who is dead 
 soo-(pe)respectful term for ghost or spirit 
Saipan Carolinian·Thoo-(tubʷ)respectful term for one who is dead 
Pulo-Annantou-(tupʷa)spirit, god 
Proto-Oceanic*taubody, person 
West Nakanaitau-man of a place or clan 
Sa’a’áu-[sala]be a gadabout, neglect the home 
Arosiau-[henua]man of the place 

See also Proto-Micronesian *tawu-₁ ‘master, expert’, Proto-Micronesian (?) *tawu₂ ‘clan, family’.

PMc   *tau₂   season, sun

Trukeseséé-(fé)new year 
Puluwatesehéé-(fé)be new 
Saipan Carolinian·Théé-(fé)new 
Woleaiantaú-(wate)daylight, day, sun 
Pulo-Annantai-(daú)new, fresh 
Proto-Chuukic*taú-, taú-(faú)·season, sun
Ponapeiansowsun (archaic) 
 taitime, season, harvest 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taqu·season, sun
Sa’aaauseason of the southeast wind 
Kwaioausoutheast wind 
Uraustronesisch*taqunyear, season 

— Cf. —

 daaytidal season 

Cf. Marck (1994:309) Proto-Micronesian *ta[wØ]u ‘sun, year, season’.

PMc   (?)   *tau₃   who?

Trukese(i)-yé, (i)-yéé-(n)·who?
Saipan Carolinian(i)-yo, (ii)-yo·who?
Saipan Carolinian·T(i)-yo·who?
Proto-Chuukic*yau, -t[ae]ú·who?
Mokilese(?) (in)-je·who?
Pingilapese(?) (i)-saa·who?

— There are problems here. Cf. —

Proto-Oceanicsaiwho? (Fij [o]-cei, [ko]-cei  (Ross 1988)
Fijian[o]-cei, [ko]-cei·who?
West Nakanai[e]-re, [e]-rei)[e]-rei 

Note that Kiribati ae ‘who (relative pronoun)’ appears to be a loan from Samoan (i)-ai ‘who (relative pronoun)’.

PMc   *tautau, tau-ki   to catch

Trukesesééséengage in a kind of fishing with handnets 
Mortlockeseséésécatch fish with a net 
Proto-Chuukic*taútaú·to catch
Ponapeiansay-kto catch (fish) 
Mokilesejay-kto try to catch or to catch on to (something) 
Marshallesejjayto catch 
 jayi-kto catch (a falling object or fruit) 
Kusaieansasʌto catch 
 sau-kto catch, grasp (something) 

— Cf. —

Laudau, dadauto hold, catch, take, touch 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tawu₃ ‘saved, held on to’.

PMc   *tautu   porcupine fish

Trukesesééw, séésééw·porcupine fish
Mortlockesesééw·porcupine fish
Puluwatesehééwú [sic]large growth stage of edible long-spined puffer fish 
Saipan Caroliniansoowspecies of lagoon fish, perhaps a goatfish 
Woleaiantaúsúa kind of fish 
Pulo-Annantaúdú·porcupine fish
Proto-Chuukic*taútú·porcupine fish
Ponapeiansεy·porcupine fish
Mokilesejoy·porcupine fish
Kiribatitautia fish 
Kusaieantautneedle fish (Bender et al. 1984: porcupine fish) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRutu·porcupine fish (Geraghty 1990)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*taRutum, taRutuŋ·porcupine fish (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Yapeset’uuyporcupine fish 

PMc   *tawaa   break, broken

Saipan Carolinianssowato break (as waves on a beach), hatch (as an egg) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tssawato break, hatch 
Woleaiantewaabe broken, cracked (as an egg), smashed 
Pulo-Annantawa-(di) [sic]to be broken 
Proto-Chuukic*tawaa·break, broken
Ponapeiansawabe broken 
Kusaieansaweto hatch 

— Cf. —

Sa’aawaabe convalescent after a fever, be over the attack 
Kwaiogwaaburst, healed of a boil 

PWMc   *tawia   any of several kinds of sea bass

Trukesesewi, #sewii-(n)any of a number of species of bass fish, bass fish of 
Puluwatesehewiy, hewiyá-(n)blue spotted sea bass, bass of 
Proto-Chuukic*tawiya·any of several kinds of sea bass
Ponapeiansawigrouper fish (Plectropomus
Mokilesejawisea bass 
Marshallesejawéya giant sea bass of genus Primicrops, sea bass of genus Plectropomus 

PMc   *ta[wØ]o, ta[wØ]o-ni   to press

Marshallesejewe-npress down on, weigh down on (something) 
Kiribatitao-napress (something) down, control (something) 
Kusaieantɒ tɒto press 
 tɒ -nto press (something) 

PMc   *tawu, tawu-ni   laid, to lay (of a fire)

Trukesesobe kindled, be lit (of an oven) 
 soo-nilay, kindle (of a fire or oven) 
Puluwatesehoo [sic]to light (as a fire or oven) 
 hoo-ni. hoo-ni-(y)to build up (as a fire) 
Proto-Chuukic*tau, tau-ni·laid, to lay (of a fire)
Ponapeiansowto be made (of a fire) 
 saw-nto make (a fire), to add wood to (a fire) 
Mokilesejowstart a fire, jaw-n start (a fire) 
 jaw-nstart (a fire) 
Marshallesejawignite, start (of a fire), run (of an engine) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tafu-n·laid, to lay (of a fire)
Fijiantavu, tavu-nabroil, roast on embers, tavutavu second burning of ground for planting 
 tavutavusecond burning of ground for planting 
Bugotutafu-nito kindle, light [a fire] 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na ‘to plant, bury’.

PMc   *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na   to plant, bury

Ponapeiansow(di)to bury itself in the mud (of crabs) 
 sowsowgrave, cemetery 
Mokilesejɔwjɔwgrave, cemetery 
Marshallesejawslip under ground or sand (of fish), place in sand where turtle lays eggs or coconut crab molts 
Kiribatitautauto bury 
 tau-nato bury (something) 
Kusaieantatʌbury, cover, fill in 
 tau-nbury, cover, or fill in (something) 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRucover  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRuput down, place  (Geraghty 1990)
Fijiantauput down [of burden], lay one thing on another 
Sa’a’aluto put, place 
Bugotutaluto put, place, appoint 
Kwaioalu, alu-ato put, keep 
Proto-Kimbetauto put, put down, deposit [of money], lay [of an egg] 
Uraustronesisch*taRuqput down or away 

— Cf. also —

Kusaieantɒ -nbury (something) 

And cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *ta[wØ]u₁ ‘time period’, Proto–Central Micronesian (?) *Too ‘at rest’, Proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’.

PMc   *tawu-₁   master, expert

Trukesesowu-master, expert 
Puluwatesehawu-expert, master, lord 
Saipan Caroliniansóu-expert 
 sóusówevil magician, sorcerer 
Saipan Carolinian·Thou-expert 
Woleaiansau-, tau-master, expert 
Proto-Chuukic*tawu-·master, expert
Ponapeiansow-expert at 
 sow-prefix in titles of rank 
Kiribatitia-expert (showing metathesis) 
Kusaieantɔ-(kɔsræ)king of Kosrae 
Proto-Oceanic(?) *taqu, daquexpert 
Tongantou-person who does something 
Samoantau-owner, expert 
Uraustronesisch*taquhknower, expert 

— Cf. —

Fijiansauhigh chief 
Proto-Polynesian*saurule, ruler 

(The saw- in certain Ponapeian high titles is probably a Polynesian loan). See also Proto-Micronesian *tau₂ ‘season, sun’ and Proto-Micronesian (?) *tawu₂ ‘clan, family’. There are problems.

PCMc   *ta[wØ]u₁   time period

Trukese(faan)-sowu-ntime of it, time of 
Ponapeian(a)-nsowtime, a period of time 
Marshallesejawbe formerly, used to be 
Kiribatitaiin due time 

See Proto–Central Micronesian *ta[wØ]u₂ ‘to wait’.

PMc   (?)   *tawu₂   clan, family

Trukesesowu-clan (prefix in some clan names) 
Puluwatesehawu-clan (prefamily in some clan names) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tsóu-clan (prefamily in some clan names) 
Woleaiansau-clan (prefamily in some clan names) 
Proto-Chuukic*tawu-·clan, family
Ponapeiansow, sowi-, sawi-matrilineal clan 
Marshallesejéwiw, jéwiymatrilineal clan 
Kusaieansəufamily (loan from Marshallese?) 

See also Proto-Micronesian *tau₂ ‘season, sun’, Proto-Micronesian *tawu-₁ ‘master, expert’.

PCMc   *ta[wØ]u₂   to wait

Trukesesowu-nigreet (a visitor on his arrival) 
Saipan Carolinianssów, sóusówlie in wait for prey (as a hunter), wait patiently to catch a desired variety of fish 
 sóu-lito be expecting (someone), to wait for (someones arrival) 
Saipan Carolinian·Thou-nibe expecting (someone) 
Woleaiansau-li-(i)wait for it, expect it 
Proto-Chuukic*tawu-ni·to wait
Mokilesejowjowto wait 
 jowiwait for (something) 
Kiribatitai-ŋawait for (someone) 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianawiiwait for (something) 

See also Proto-Micronesian *tau₂ ‘season, sun’, Proto–Central Micronesian *ta[wØ]u₁ ‘time period’.

PCMc   *tawu₃   saved, held on to

Trukesesoo-(chik)be saved, put away, kept 
 soo-(nap)be wasted, discarded, lost 
Puluwatesehoo-(lap)waste, squander 
Saipan Caroliniansoo-(lap)squander, waste 
Woleaiantaube saved, preserved, kept 
Proto-Chuukic*tawu·saved, held on to
Kiribatitau-ato seize, grasp, hold back, retain, hold (something) 
 tautauengage in holding or retaining 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taRuput down, place  (Geraghty 1990)
Sa’aaluto put, place 
Bugotutaluput, place, appoint 
Laualuto put, bury 
Kwaioaluput, keep 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *tautau, tau-ki ‘to catch’.

PMc   *ta[wØ]u[iu]   placenta, afterbirth

Saipan Carolinianséé-(la)placenta, afterbirth  (Bender et al. 1984)
Woleaiansééú-(le)·placenta, afterbirth
Mokilesejóu·placenta, afterbirth
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tafui·placenta, afterbirth
Sa’a’ehui·placenta, afterbirth

— Cf. —


PMc   *tawui   triton or trumpet shell

Trukesesewi, sewii-·triton or trumpet shell
Mortlockesesawi·triton or trumpet shell
Puluwateseháwi, háwii-·triton or trumpet shell
Saipan Caroliniansawi, sawii-·triton or trumpet shell
Saipan Carolinian·Thawi·triton or trumpet shell
Satawalesesawi·triton or trumpet shell
Woleaiantawii·triton or trumpet shell
Pulo-Annantawi [sic]·triton or trumpet shell
Proto-Chuukic*tawii·triton or trumpet shell
Ponapeiansεwi·triton or trumpet shell
Mokilesejowi·triton or trumpet shell
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*tawii·triton or trumpet shell
Kiribatitau (? tauu)triton conch, trumpet shell  (Bender et al. 1984)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tafuRi·triton or trumpet shell (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*tapuRiq, dapuRiq·triton or trumpet shell (Ross 1988)
Fijiandavui·triton or trumpet shell
Sa’a’áhuri·triton or trumpet shell
Bugotutavuli·triton or trumpet shell
Arosiahuri·triton or trumpet shell
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*tambuRiq·triton or trumpet shell

PCMc   (?)   *tawu or *co[wØ]a-   a fish

Saipan Caroliniansoowa lagoon fish (perhaps a goatfish) 
Woleaiansoowe, sowa-kind of fish 
Kiribatitaua fish 

The Woleaian and Kiribati forms are incompatible and probably do not both belong in this set. See also Proto-Micronesian *tautu ‘porcupine fish’.

PCMc   *taxe, taxe-ki-   removed, excised

Trukesebe removed, emptied (of earth oven), come loose (of outrigger float) 
 ssá, sássárun 
 sáá-siremove (clothes), take away (from a place), swing out (of arms or fish pole), remove or peel off (of skin), chase away into exile 
 (á)-sáá-(y)chase away, cause to run 
Puluwateseháá-ki-(y)to remove (clothes or outrigger), dislodge 
 háá-(ló)leave, not stay 
Saipan Carolinianssáswing the arms quickly when walking or running, run off, run away 
 sáá-ghito lift, move, or remove (an object or magic spell) 
Woleaiansaasapeel off 
 saa-gi-(i)peel it off 
Proto-Chuukic*tae, tae-ki-·removed, excised
Ponapeiansarto peel (of skin after sunburn) 
 sansarbe sliced, peeled 
 sansara-dabe uprooted 
 sεrεto slice, peel with an instrument 
 sarε-kto uproot, peel, pry 
Mokilesejarto come out 
 jar-(la)be pulled out, come off 
 jare-kpull (something) out 
Kiribatitaestripped, extracted, drawn out, defeated 
 tae-(bʷoto)be uprooted 

PMc   *te-   one (prefixed to classifiers)

Trukesee-, i-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Mortlockesee- and se-(eik)ten animals 
Puluwateseye-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Saipan Caroliniane- and sa-(ŋaras)one thousand 
Saipan Carolinian·Ta-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Satawalesee- and sa-(ŋaras)one thousand 
Woleaianse-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Pulo-Annande-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Proto-Chuukic*te-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Ponapeiane-·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Marshalleseji-(wen)·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Kiribatite-, te-(uana)·one (prefixed to classifiers)
Kusaieanse.·one (prefixed to classifiers)

PMc   *telu, telu-ua   three, three (general)

Trukeseéén, wúnú-three 
 ini-ik, ini-ika- (<*wúnú-yik)thirty 
Mortlockeseéél, élú- and éli-k·three, three (general)
Puluwateseyéél, yélú-, yelu-(uw)and yeli-ik 
 yeli-ik·three, three (general)
Saipan Carolinian·Tili-·three, three (general)
Satawaleseyéél, yélú-·three, three (general)
Woleaianyeeli, seli- and seli-ike·three, three (general)
Ulithianyeel, sulu-·three, three (general)
Pulo-Annandéni- and déni-iki·three, three (general)
Proto-Chuukic*telú and *telú-yike·three, three (general)
Ponapeian(e)-sil, sili-·three, three (general)
Mokilese(e)-jil, jili-, jil-, jilu-(w)·three, three (general)
Marshallesejili-, jili-w·three, three (general)
Kiribatiteni-, tenu-(ua), teni-(ua)·three, three (general)
Kusaieantol, tol-(u)·three, three (general)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tolu·three, three (general) (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*tolu·three, three (general) (Ross 1988)
Fijiantolu·three, three (general)
Proto-Polynesian*tolu·three, three (general)
Rotumanfolu·three, three (general)
Sa’a’olu·three, three (general)
Bugotutolu·three, three (general)
Arosioru·three, three (general)
Kwaioolu·three, three (general)
Proto-Kimbe*tolu·three, three (general)
Uraustronesisch*telu·three, three (general)

See Proto-Micronesian *-ua ‘general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)’.

PMc   (?)   *tewe, tewe-mea   goatfish

Trukesewoo-mayspecies of goatfish 
Saipan Caroliniano-meyspecies of reef fish 
Mokilesejoo-mekind of goatfish 
Marshallesejew-meya goatfish (Mulloidichthys auriflama
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tewe·goatfish
Fijiantoatwo kinds of fish 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianyomogoatfish (Parupeneus indicus

PMc   *tia₁   stomach, belly, abdomen

Pulo-Annandiia, dia-·stomach, belly, abdomen
 siistomach ache 
Marshallese(law)-jéy, jéy, (law)-jiye-, jiye-·stomach, belly, abdomen
Proto-Oceanic*tia·stomach, belly, abdomen
Sa’a’ie·stomach, belly, abdomen
Ulawan’ia·stomach, belly, abdomen
Proto-Kimbe*tia·stomach, belly, abdomen

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *taka, taka-ni ‘stomach, have stomach for’.

PMc   (?)   *tia₂   a fish

Kiribatitiaa fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tia(Fij tiatia a freshwater fish). Cf. PMc *tia stomach, belly, abdomen 
Fijiantiatiaa freshwater fish 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *tia₁ ‘stomach, belly, abdomen’.

PCMc   *tiaa   boundary

Trukeseiyá, iyáá-(n)boundary, boundary of 
Saipan Carolinianyááli-, yááli-(l)boundary, boundary of 
Woleaiansiyaaboundary, division 
Pulo-Annandia [sic]·boundary
Kiribatitiaa. Cf. Chk kiyá, kiyáá-(n)boundary, boundary of 
Puluwatese(ya)-kiyánn, -kiyánne-(n)border, boundary, boundary of (loan from Trukese?) 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Polynesian*tiastake, post 
Proto-Polynesian*tia-kito guard 
Uraustronesisch*tiyañstake, post 

PWMc   *tiapʷo   growing tip of a tree

Trukesewuwapʷ, #wuwapʷpʷe-(n)growing tip of the palm tree or banana plant 
Saipan Carolinianuwóbʷo-(l)growing top sprout of leaves (as of banana) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tuwabʷo-(n)·growing tip of a tree
Woleaiansiyabo-(li)top (of trees, poles, masts), peak, crest 
Proto-Chuukic*ti[wy]apʷo·growing tip of a tree
Marshallesejiyabʷheart of palm 

— Cf. —

Trukesekuwapʷ, #kuwapʷpʷe-(n)growing tip of a tree 

PCMc   (?)   *tici   bamboo

Trukeseiich, ichi-(n)bamboo, bamboo of 
Woleaiansiishi, sishi-a subfamily of bamboo 
Kiribatitiripandanus shoot for planting 

PMc   *tiku or *tuki   tropic bird

Trukesewúúkwhite-tailed tropic bird 
 wúkú-(par)bird with a green body and red tail 
Mortlockeseúúka bird 
Puluwatesewúúktropic bird 
 wúkú-(chcha)red-tailed tropic bird 
 wúkú-(pak)a short white-tailed tropic bird 
Satawalesesúúktropic bird 
Woleaiansúúgú. súgú-white-tailed tropic bird with long tail 
Proto-Chuukic*túkú·tropic bird
Ponapeiansiika white sea bird 
Mokilesejikbird species 
Kusaieansik, sika kind of bird 

Note that Ø is the expected reflex of *t in the Ponapeian and Mokilese forms. The wúkú- in Trukese wúkú-(par) and Puluwatese wúkú-(chcha), wúkú-(pak) appear to be the root for ‘tail’ (see Proto-Micronesian *iku ‘tail’) rather than this one.

PMc   *tina   mother

Trukeseiin, ina-(n)mother, his mother 
Mortlockeseiin. ina-·mother
Puluwateseyiin, yiná-(y)mother, my mother 
Saipan Carolinianiil, ila-(l)·mother
Saipan Carolinian·Tiin, ina-(n)·mother
Satawaleseiin, ina-·mother
Woleaiansila-(le)his mother 
Pulo-Annandiina, dina-·mother
Ponapeianiin, inεmother, his mother 
Mokileseina-(a)his mother 
Pingilapeseinεhis mother 
Kiribatitina-(na)his mother 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tina·mother (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Austronesian*tina·mother (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Kusaieanninε, nnæone's mother 

PCMc   *tinitini, tini-mi   to roast, broil

Ponapeianiniinto cook, roast, broil, toast 
 ini-mcook, etc. (something) 
Mokileseiniinto cook 
 ini-mcook (something) 
Pingilapeseiniinto cook 
Marshallese(yik)-jincook fish on stones 
 jin-(bahat)smoke out, smudge 
 jin-(kadwel)broil on hot stones 
Kiribatitintinto roast, broil 
 tini-mato broil (coconut), to fry (something) 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*tunuto roast 
Fijiantunu, tunu-ma, tunu-cato warm food up again 
Proto-Polynesian*tunucook on open fire 
Rotumanfun, funu-to cook [especially by boiling] 
Sa’auunuto burn on a fire, roast on embers 
Bugotutunumark, blot, or cicatrice caused by burning 
Kwaiounu-acook vegetables by steaming in a leaf-plugged bamboo 
West Nakanaitululuto burn [of a burn] 
 [e]-tululuhot taro 
Uraustronesisch*tunuto roast 

— Cf. also —

West Nakanaisililu, sululuto singe 

PMc   *t[iu]pʷu   be born, bear young

Trukesewuupʷ, wupʷu-(n)child, offspring (of man only), child of 
 wupʷ, wuupʷbe fertile, have increase, bear young 
 wupʷu-(tiw)be born 
Mortlockeseupʷu-(tiw)be born 
Puluwatesewupʷu-(tiw)be born 
Saipan Carolinianubʷu-(tiw)be born 
Satawaleseupʷu-(to), supʷu-(to)be born 
Woleaiansubube born 
Ulithiansubu-be born 
Proto-Chuukic*tupʷu·be born, bear young
Ponapeianipʷiipʷbe a paternal descendant 
 ipʷi-(di)be born 
Mokileseipʷ-(di)be born 
Marshallesejibʷi-grandmother, grandchild 
Kiribatitibʷu-(na)his grandparent, his grandchild 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tubugrow  (Geraghty (1983)
Proto-Oceanic*tubuqgrow  (Ross 1988)
Fijiantubuto grow 
Proto-Polynesian*tupugrow, spring up 
Rotumanfupugrow, increase 
Sa’a’upu, ’upu’uputo swell 
Bugotutubuto swell 
 tubu-[gna]his mothers brother 
Lauubuubube thick, deep 
Arosiubuto swell 
Kwaioubuswell, swelling 
Proto-Kimbe*tubuto grow 
Uraustronesisch*(tT)umpuq·be born, bear young

Note that Ponapeian dipʷ, dipʷi-(n) ‘exogamous matrilineal clan’ is presumably a loan.

PMc   *tiro, tiro-ŋi   to peer, have a look

Trukese(e)-yirapeer out at, look out for 
Mortlockeseiro-ŋeto observe (something) 
Puluwateseyiro-ŋi-(y)to look for or at (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*iro, iro-ŋi-·to peer, have a look
Ponapeianiroyrto look or peer in the distance, to see ones own reflection 
 iro-ŋto peer at 
Mokileseiro-ŋto peer at (something) 
Marshallesejéjérto look for 
 (kap)-jér, (kap)-jérʷmirror 
Kusaieanyorto visit, peep 
 iro-ŋ, iriro-ŋglance, peep, peek at 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tiro·to peer, have a look
Fijiantiro, tiro-valook at something reflected in water or a glass 
Proto-Polynesian*tirolook at 
Sa’a’iro, ’iro’iroto look at, look for, see 
Bugotutiroto look, mirror 
Arosiiroto look 
 iro-hito look into 
Kwaioilolook at 
Uraustronesisch*ti(n)Daw·to peer, have a look

— Cf. —

West Nakanaitilohoto peer around or after without being seen 

Kiribati tiro-a ‘to inspect, scrutinize (something)’ is a loan from a Polynesian source, e.g., Samoan tilotilo ‘look, glance’. Note the unexpected absence of an initial consonant (t or s) in the Kusaiean form, which may be a loan from Ponapeian.

PWMc   *tisi, tisi-ŋi   to point or face

Trukeseiti-point, be toward, face 
 iti-(nó)point away 
 itiitdirection in which something faces or to which it points 
 iti-nipoint or face towards (something) 
Mortlockeseiti-ŋeto point at (something) 
Puluwateseyiti-lie (as a stick), face (as a house) 
 yiti-(wenewen)face directly east or west 
 yitiitto point 
 yiti-ŋi-iyto point out 
Saipan Carolinianitiitpoint, pointing projection 
Satawaleseit, iti-to point 
 iti-ŋipoint (something) out 
Woleaiansitito be straight, stick out 
Proto-Chuukic*tidi, tidi-ŋi-·to point or face
 idi-ito point at 
 idiidi-(da)to be pointed out, identified 
Marshallesejit, jité-ŋhead in a certain direction 

— Cf. —

Kiribatitirisimply, merely, only, just 
 tiro-ainspect or examine (something) carefully 
Kusaieansrisrsrisrto point, hint 
 srisr-ŋipoint at, hint at (something) 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuz[iu]point  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*tusi·to point or face
Sa’a’usu·to point or face
Bugotutuhu·to point or face
Arosiusu·to point or face
West Nakanaituri, tuturi·to point or face

PMc   *tiSaki   to ask

Ponapeian(pe)-ydεkto ask a question 
 idεkto ask (someone) 
 (ke)-ydεkto ask (someone, honorific) 
Mokileseidɔk·to ask
Pingilapeseidεk·to ask
Marshallesejiték, ka-jjiték·to ask
Kiribatititirakito question, make inquiry 
 titirakia question, an inquiry 
Kusaieansiyʌkto ask, request, interrogate (someone) 

— Cf. —

Samoan’aisito ask, from which could be derived a passive *aisai 

Cf. also Proto-Chuukic *[kØ]a[tØ]ieki ‘to ask’, Proto-Chuukic *katia, katitia ‘to ask, a question’.

PMc   (?)   *to[ae]   inheritance

Pulo-Annandue-nisuceed it, inherit it 
Mokilesejoojoinheritance, souvenir, keepsake, memory 
Kiribati(?) toaall provided with, fully supplied 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*toReremainder 

Inclusion of Woleaian tóó-(shigi) ‘careful treatment, careful consideration’ in this series (Bender et al. 1984, Geraghty 1990) is not justifiable. There are problems here.

PMc   *toka₁   to chop

Marshallesejék, jékjékto cut, hew, chop, prune, salute with the hands 
Kiribatioka-ato cut off (pandanus fruit) with a blade fastened to a stick (showing loss of *t before k
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*toka·to chop
Bugotutokato fell [a tree], chop [something] down 

PMc   *toka₂   rafter

Marshallesejek-(pad)rafters (of a house) 
Kiribatiokarafter (of a house) (showing loss of *t before k
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[dt]oka·rafter
Fijiandokaridgepole of house 

— Cf. —

Trukesewoovertical rafter 

PMc   *toki   bite, peck

Ponapeiansokto bite (used with reference to rats) 
Kiribatiokichisel (showing loss of *t before k
Proto-Oceanic*toki·bite, peck
Fijiantokito peck [of birds] 
Sa’a’o’ito break (something) in pieces 
Arosioistrike with an axe 
Kwaioo’ichop up wood 
West Nakanaitoitoia sawtooth design 

Note that Kiribati doublet (te)-toki ‘chisel’ would appear to be a loan from Samoan to’i ‘adze’, since it does not show the loss of t before k.

PMc   (?)   *toko   omen

Trukeseoo, wooomen 
 oo-su-niinterpret or read (an omen) (presumably oo-su- is a back formation from an intransitive *oo-s derived from a transitive *oo-si- to portend) 

PMc   *toko, toko-na   cane, walking stick

Puluwateseyoo, yooyo·cane, walking stick
Satawaleseyoo-·cane, walking stick
Woleaiansoogo, sogo-·cane, walking stick
Pulo-Annandooko, doko-·cane, walking stick
Proto-Chuukic*toko·cane, walking stick
Ponapeiansoko-n·cane, walking stick
Marshallesejekʷe-ṇ·cane, walking stick
Kiribatiooko, (te)-oko(showing loss of *t before k
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[dt]oko, [dt]okon-a·cane, walking stick
Fijiantokoprop, stay, supporting pole, doko punting pole 
 dokopunting pole 
Proto-Polynesian*toko·cane, walking stick
Uraustronesisch*teken·cane, walking stick

— Cf. —

Yapesesoogwalking stick 

Note: Trukese, Mortlockese, and Puluwatese wóók, wóku-n ‘cane, cane of’, may be related but are not inherited forms.

PMc   *tokolau   northerly, from the north

Trukesewéénéname of the island in northeast position in Chuuk lagoon 
Puluwatesewééléname of same island 
Marshallesejekʷḷay, jekʷeḷaywind from the north 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tokalau·northerly, from the north
Proto-Polynesian*tokelaunorth, northerly wind 
Fijiantokalaunortheast wind 
Uraustronesisch*tokalaud·northerly, from the north

— Cf. —

Sa’aooruwind, to blow (a loan) 
Lauoruwind, to blow 
Bugotusokara laua south wind 

See also Proto-Micronesian *lau ‘pool, have liquid’.

PMc   *toŋo   mangrove

Trukesewooŋ, woŋe-(n)mangrove, mangrove of 
Saipan Carolinianyooŋ, yoŋo-·mangrove
Woleaiansooŋo, soŋo-·mangrove
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*toŋo·mangrove
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*teŋeR·mangrove (Blust 1984–85)

Cf. Ponapeian soomʷ instead of expected *soong.

PCMc   *tou   to dodge, parry (in fighting)

Trukese(fi)-yuuw, (fi)-wuuwto fight 
 (e-fi)-yuuwumake him fight 
Puluwatese(fii)-yoow [sic]to fight 
Saipan Carolinian(fi)-yoowto fight someone 
Kiribatitoutouto dodge to one side (as the head) 
 toutou-ato ward off 

— See also —

Kiribati(i)-tauto box, to fight with the fists 

PCMc   (?)   *t[ou]wai   future negative, will not

Woleaian-tewai·future negative, will not
Pulo-Annantowaiwill not, do not (in negative commands) 
Kiribatituaino longer 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *-taa[iØ] ‘no longer’ (aspect marker).

PMc   *towu   sugarcane

Trukesewoow, #wowu-·sugarcane
Saipan Carolinianwoow, wowu-·sugarcane
Woleaianwoou, wou-·sugarcane
Pulo-Annan-doucut pieces of breadfruit (counting classifier) 
Ponapeianseew, sew-·sugarcane
Kiribatitoufruit of the pandanus (chewed like sugarcane) 
Bugotuehu·sugarcane [a loan] 
West Nakanaitovu·sugarcane
Proto-Austronesian*CebuS·sugarcane (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Tongantoo(presumably a loan) 

— Cf. —

Marshallesetaw(probably a loan) 

PMc   *tuki   tropic bird

see Proto-Micronesian *tiku or *tuki.

PMc   *tuki, tukituki   to pound

Trukesewúsúúspound or mash with pestle 
 wúsipound it 
Mortlockeseúseto pound or mash (something) 
Puluwatesewuk [sic]to pound 
 wúkúúkto pound (as taro) 
 wúki-i-(y)to pound it (as poi) 
Saipan Carolinianúghúúghdo pounding 
 úghú-wpound food into paste 
Satawalesesúkú, yúkú-(w)pound it 
Woleaiansúgú-úpound it, beat it, hit it, hammer it 
Proto-Chuukic*tuki, tukituki·to pound
Ponapeiansukto pound (something) 
Mokilesejukto pound, hit 
 jukito pound (something) 
Marshallesejikʷjikʷpound breadfruit or taro 
 jikʷjikʷiypound or mash it 
Kiribatiikiikuto engage in mashing breadfruit 
 ikiikustone pestle 
 ikapound or mash (food) 
 iku-amash it 
Kusaieantuk, tuktukto pound 
Proto-Oceanic*tuki, tukituki·to pound
Fijiantukistrike at, knock at, hammer, pinch 
Arosiu’i-[ŋa’i]to beat upon [of rain] 
West Nakanaitutu-ato strike with the finger, tap [as a tattooing needle] 
Uraustronesisch*Tuk, TukTuk·to pound

— Cf. —

Woleaiansúsú [sic]pound, beat, hit, hammer 
Yapesetuguwpestle, betel nut pounder 

Note that Ø is the expected reflex in the Ponapeian and Mokilese forms.

PMc   *[tT]ulu-   young shoot, sprout

Marshallesejiḷwcore of coconut tree at upper end, growth from old root or branch, young shoot, bud forth, sprout 
Kusaieansulu-(n)young shoot of, sprout of 

— Cf. —

Kusaieansoloyoung shoot, to sprout 
 sololobe full of shoots, covered with sprouts 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*julitaro sucker  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijiansuli-banana or taro sucker 
Proto-Polynesian*suliyoung shoot 
Uraustronesisch*sulihsprout, shoot 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *ili ‘sprout, shoot (of plants)’.

PMc   (?)   *tuna   freshwater eel

Kusaieanton·freshwater eel
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuna·freshwater eel
Proto-Polynesian*tunafreshwater eel 
Proto-Austronesian*tuNaeel  (Wolff 1993)

Marshallese teṇʷ ‘freshwater eel’ is an evident loan from Kusaiean — these eels are not found in the Marshalls but are known from the Eastern Carolines.

PMc   (?)   *[tT]upa   fish poison

Woleaiansuupe, supa-(li)fish poison, fish poison of 
Proto-Oceanic*tupa·fish poison
FijianduvaDerris trifoliata 
Proto-Austronesian*tubaDerris species  (Blust 1984–85)

See also Proto-Micronesian *upa ‘derris vine’, Proto-Micronesian (?) *iwu ‘tree (Barringtonia asiatica).

PMc   *tura   house post

Trukesewúúr, wúre-(n)supporting post of a house, post of 
Puluwatesewúrá-npost of 
Saipan Carolinianúúrmain post 
 úrá-(li)use or set up on posts 
Satawaleseúúrhouse post 
 úrá-niset (something) up on posts 
Woleaiansúúre, súra-(li)house post, house post of 
 súra-aput a post under it 
Pulo-Annandúúlu, dúlú- [sic]house post 
Sonsorolesedúúlehouse post 
Proto-Chuukic*tura·house post
Marshallesejéwér, jiwre-(n)pillar, column, post, pole, post of 
Proto-Oceanic*tura·house post
Sa’a’ureto stand up 
Ulawan’urato stand up 
Arosiurato stand 
Kwaioulato stand 
West Nakanaituravertical wall pole 
 tura-[kakavo]house posts 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*turus·house post

Marshallese length needs explanation.

PMc   (?)   *turai   barracuda

Mokilesejuurea kind of barracuda 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *tarawa ‘barracuda’.

PMc   *turi   to string

Trukesewúri, #(é)-wúrústring (something) together 
Ponapeianiirstring of something (as of flowers or fish) 
Mokileseirstring for stringing things, to work at stringing 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*turi·to string
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuRito thread, string (fish)  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *turu   to drip

Trukesesúrúsúrbe dripping 
 ssúrlarge drop (of liquid) 
Puluwatesehúri-(tiw)drip down 
Saipan Carolinianssúrdribble 
 ssúrú-(tiw)drip down, run down 
Proto-Chuukic*Túrú·to drip
Kiribatituuto trickle 
Kusaieantuldrip, drop 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*turuto drip  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianturudrip, drop [of liquids] 
Proto-Polynesian*tulu·to drip
Sa’a’uru’uruto spill, dribble out 
Bugotuturu-[be]·to drip
Proto-Austronesian*tuDuq·to drip (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Woleaianssérútip of a canoe paddle (i.e., drip point?) 
Ponapeiankεrto trickle 

PMc   *tu[sS]u   finger, toe

Trukeseé-wút, é-wútú-(n)finger, his finger 
 é-wútú-(ros)be short fingered 
 (ni)-ké-wútú-(ros)person with short fingers 
 -wútfinger (c.c.) 
Mortlockeseya-Wútú-(n)his finger 
Puluwateseya-wútú-(n)his finger 
 -ya-wútfinger (c.c.) 
Saipan Caroliniana-yútt, a-yúttú-(l)·finger, toe
 -ga-ttú, -ge-ttúfinger (c.c.) 
Ulithianga-ddu-(l)finger of 
 -ka-ttúfinger (c.c.) 
Proto-Chuukic*ka-túdú, -túdú·finger, toe
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuz[iu]·finger, toe (Gerahgty 1983)
Tongantuhufinger, to point 
 tuhu’ito point to 
Fijiandusito point with the finger 
 i-dusiindex finger 
Sa’a’usuto point 
Bugotutuhuto point 
Uraustronesisch*tu[ñØ]Zuqto point 

— Cf. —

Marshallese(ha)-ddiyfinger, toe 
Kusaieansrisrsrisrto point out 
 srisr-ŋito point at, hint at 

Cf. also Proto–Western Micronesian *tanisi ‘finger or toe’.

PMc   *tuu₁   to stand

Trukesestand erect, be upright 
 wúú-(tá)stand up 
 (kké)-wúmake upright, make stand erect 
 (é)-wúú-wmake it stand, build it 
Puluwatesewúú-(tá)stand up, rise 
 (kka)-wúerect (as a house) 
Saipan Carolinianúú-(tá)stand up 
 (a)-yúú-wbuild (something) 
Woleaiansúústand, take an upright position 
Proto-Chuukic*túú·to stand
 uu-(da)stand up 
Marshallesejiw-(tak)stand up 
Kusaieantustand up 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuqu·to stand
Fijiantuu·to stand
Proto-Polynesian*tuqu·to stand
Bugotutuu·to stand
Kwaiouu·to stand
West Nakanaituhu-(mapa)nod ones head up 
Uraustronesisch*(tT)uquD·to stand

— Cf. —

 tei-(rake)stand up 

See also Proto-Micronesian *tuu₂ ‘stopped, halted’.

PMc   *tuu₂   stopped, halted

Trukesebe stopped, halted (of something in motion) 
 (é)-wúú-wmake stop, make halt 
 (kké)-wústop, pause 
 (kké)-wúú-(nó)stop altogether, cease, halt 
 wúwi-(iti)stop until 
Puluwatese(ka)-wúú-(ló)to stop 
 (ya)-wúú-we-(ló)to stop (something) 
Saipan Carolinianúú-(ló)stop 
 (a)-yúú-(ló)stop something, make it come to a stop 
Proto-Chuukic*túú·stopped, halted
Ponapeianuu-(di)to stop (of moving objects) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tuqu·stopped, halted
Fijiantuube in a place 
Tongantu’uto hold up, stop 
Uraustronesisch*(tT)uquD·stopped, halted

See also Proto-Micronesian *tuu₁ ‘to stand’.

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