Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


wa    we    wi    wo    wu    

PMc   *waani   pumice stone

Saipan Carolinianwáál·pumice stone
Satawaleseuwan·pumice stone
Woleaianuwaali·pumice stone
Pulo-Annanwani·pumice stone
Proto-Chuukic*[uØ]waani·pumice stone
Ponapeianwaan-(pey)·pumice stone
Mokileseween·pumice stone
Kiribatiwaan·pumice stone (Bender et al. 1984)
Kusaiean(yot) wensmall black stone 

— Cf. —

Yapesewaarrock, big rock 

— Cf. also —

Trukesemattopumice stone 

Cf. Marck (1994:318) Proto-Micronesian *fatu waani.

PMc   (?)   *wae   leg, foot

Trukesewaasaas (?<*waa-asa-as)briskly, quickly (in walking) (lit. ? with feet or legs high) 
Ponapeianwasasto stagger, have difficulty keeping ones footing 
 we-(yd)walk in a specific direction 
Mokilesewa-(jejjej)to skip over the water 
Marshallesewa-n-walk toward 
 wey-(lakʷ)go away 
Kiribatiwaeleg, foot (could be loan from Polynesian) 
 wae-(tata)go or walk rapidly 
Kusaieango, arrive, sail 
 oε-(tu)walk down a slope 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic(?) *waqe·leg, foot
Proto-Polynesian*waqefoot, leg 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’ae, ’ae’aeleg, foot 
Bugotu(n)-ae (<*[na]-ae?)leg, foot 
Lauaefoot, leg 
Kwaio’aefoot, base, source, leg 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *faa- ‘underside, under’.

PCMc   (?)   *wai   to spear, stab, pierce

Marshallesewayto spear, stab, give an injection, receive an injection, an injection or shot 
 wayi-kstab, spear, give an injection to (someone) 
Kiribatiwaithe spearing of fish 
 waito engage in spearing fish 
 wae-ato pierce, to stick, to sew, to interrupt (something) 

One of these could be a loan from the other.

PMc   *waka   vein, sinew

Trukesewaa, waa-(n)vein, artery, tendon, nerve, sinew, vein of 
Puluwatesewaa-(n)vein or artery of 
Saipan Carolinianwaa, waa-(l)veins, arteries, his vein 
 waawato have varicose or badly swollen veins 
Woleaianwaaga, waga-vein, sinew, blood vessel, artery 
Pulo-Annanwaaka, waka-root, vein, sinew, artery 
Sonsorolesewaka [sic]root 
Proto-Chuukic*waka·vein, sinew
Marshalleseyékéyvein, artery, blood vessel 
Kiribatiwakawakastring, fibrous (as pandanus fruit) 
Kusaieanælko (<*okæl?)blood vessel 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*uauavein, artery, tendon, sinew 
Bugotuulatendon, sinew, vein 
Kwaioulablood vessel, vein 
West Nakanaiuaradial roots of a tree 
Uraustronesisch*uRat·vein, sinew

There is no basis for Geraghty’s (1990) reconstruction of Proto-Micronesian *aka ‘vein, sinew’. See also Proto-Micronesian (?) *ua₁ ‘tendon, vein’, Proto-Micronesian *waka, wakara ‘root’.

PMc   *waka, wakara   root

UraustronesischChk. waar, waara-(n)root, its root 
Puluwatesewaar, waara-(n)·root
Saipan Carolinianwaar, waara-(l)roots, root of 
Satawalesewaar, waara-(n)·root
Woleaianwegare, wagera-(li)·root
Pulo-Annanwalakalaroot, stalk (showing metathesis) 
Sonsorolesewalaga(showing meathesis) 
Kiribatiwakaaroot, one who gives support 
Kusaieanɒ k ɒ kmangrove root, okæ root 
Proto-Oceanic*wakaRroot  (Ross 1988)

See also Proto-Micronesian *waka ‘vein, sinew’.

PMc   *walu   vegetation, forest

Trukesewénúwénvegetation, bush 
 wénú-(ŋŋaw)useless plant, weed 
Puluwatesewaal, wali-(n)forest, jungle, forest of 
 walúwalplant, trees, forest, be forested 
Saipan Carolinianwalúwal, #walawalforest, jungle 
Satawalesewaniwanforest, vegetated area 
Woleaianwaalú, walú-forest, bush, woods 
 walúwelúplant, tree 
Pulo-Annanwaanú, wanú-green sprig used as a hair ornament 
 wonuwonujungle, forest, bush 
Proto-Chuukic*waalú, walú-, walúwalú·vegetation, forest
Ponapeianwaaljungle, forest 
Pingilapesewεlforest, woods 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*walu·vegetation, forest
Proto–Eastern Oceanicwalu·vegetation, forest
Kwaiokʷaluunusable bush 

— Cf. —

Sa’awalu-(malau)the world, all the islands 
Arosiwaruwaruthe inhabited world generally, all the known islands 

See also Marck (1994:322) Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *walu and Proto-Chuukic *waluwalu.

PMc   *walu, walu-ua   eight, eight (general)

Trukesewaan, wanú-, wanu-uweight and wani-ik eighty 
Mortlockesewaal·eight, eight (general)
Puluwatesewaal, walú-, walu-uw, wali-ik·eight, eight (general)
Saipan Carolinianwaal, walú-, walu-uw, wali-igh·eight, eight (general)
Woleaianwaali, wali-, walu-uwe, wali-ige·eight, eight (general)
Pulo-Annanwanú- and wanú-iki·eight, eight (general)
Proto-Chuukic*walú, walu-uwa, *walú-ike·eight, eight (general)
Ponapeian(ε)-wεl, wεlε-, wεli-, wali-, walu-u·eight, eight (general)
Mokilese(a)-wal, wal-, walu-w·eight, eight (general)
Marshallese(ri)-wali-(yték)·eight, eight (general)
Kiribatiwani-, wanu-ua·eight, eight (general)
Kusaieanɒ l, al, ɒ l-, al-·eight, eight (general)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*walu·eight, eight (general) (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*walu·eight, eight (general) (Ross 1988)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*walu·eight, eight (general)
Fijianwalu·eight, eight (general)
Sa’awalu·eight, eight (general)
Proto-Nakanai*wa[lL]u·eight, eight (general)
Uraustronesisch*walu(h)·eight, eight (general)

See Proto-Micronesian *-ua ‘general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)’.

PCMc   *w[ao]pʷo   to beat, to strike with an object

Trukesewópʷbe beat, struck, hit 
 wópʷu-nibeat, strike, whip (someone with stick or whip) 
Puluwateseyoopʷ [sic]to hit 
 yopʷu-li-(y)to beat, hit, switch (as with a club or as with a ball) 
Kiribatiobʷobe broken off, broken in strength, decrepit 
 obʷo-radestroy, desolate, devastate, damage (something) 

PMc   *wasi, wasiwasi   balloon fish, puffer fish, be large

Trukesewát-(te)be big, large 
 wát- (tee-nó)to increase, get larger 
Saipan Carolinianwáátspuffer of balloon fish 
Woleaianwaati, wati-a kind of fish (not eaten) 
Proto-Chuukicwadi·balloon fish, puffer fish, be large
Ponapeianwaadpuffer fish 
Marshallesewatpuffer fish 
Kiribatiwaribe of great size 
 wari-(ni-bʷunii)a fish (te-bwunii a puffer fish of genus Arothron
Kusaieanotwotkind of fish 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanεkind of fish with white fat 

PMc   *waSe, waSe-ki   to count

Woleaianwatewateto count, reckon, enumerate 
 weta-gi-(i)count or reckon it 
Sonsorolesewetewetto count 
Proto-Chuukic*wade·to count
Ponapeianwadawadto read, count 
 wadε-kread or count (something) 
 wadto multiply (in mathematics) 
 wadi-kimultiply it 
Mokilesewadwad to read’, wade-kto count or read (something) 
Marshallesewatwatcount up, estimate by counting 
 wate-kcount up (something) 
Kiribatiwareto count, read 
 warewarecounting, reading 
 ware-kacount or read (something) 
Kusaieanoεoεcount, enumerate 
 oe-kcount (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*wasedivide  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianwaseto divide, separate 
 wasewasedivision, partition 
Proto-Polynesian*wasedivide, separate 
Sa’awate, wa’ewateto distribute food at a feast after making an oration 
Arosiwateto give 
Kwaiokʷate, kʷate-acontribute, give 

PMc   *watu   toward or in direction of person addressed

Trukese-wow·toward or in direction of person addressed
Puluwatesewaw·toward or in direction of person addressed
Proto-Chuukic*wa[tw]u·toward or in direction of person addressed
Ponapeian-wεy·toward or in direction of person addressed
Marshallesewaj, wéj·toward or in direction of person addressed
Kiribatiwatitoward person who has just spoken 
Proto-Oceanic*watuhence  (Ross 1988:464)
Bugotuatugo away, go forth 

— Cf. —

Sa’awáuadverb of place, there 
Bugotuauout, away 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *wotu ‘outward’.

PMc   *wa[wØ]u   wealthy

Trukesewéwbe rich, wealthy 
 wéwú-(n)wealth of 
 (é)-wéwúmake (someone) rich 
Ponapeianwaawrespect, honor 
 waw-nrespectful, respectable, honorable 
Kiribatiwauwauwell furnished with conveniences or suitable clothing 
Kusaieanɒprecious, of good quality, excellent 

PCMc   *wa[xØ]a   crosspiece

Trukesewaa-, wáá-(n)stick, tie, tie-rod, stick of 
 wáá-(yi-so)distal board across the outrigger booms 
Puluwatesewáá-(ni-yáŋ)yoked stringer connecting outrigger booms 
Saipan Carolinianwáá-(li-yáŋ)crossbeam connecting outrigger booms on sailing canoe 
Woleaianwaa-(li-yeŋi)float stringer of a canoe 
 waa-(s-soosoo) (< *waa-li-soosoo)outrigger boom stringer 
 waa-(li paúréé)stick for scraping off the inside portion of banana layers 
 waha-(n bil)launching pad rollers 
Kiribatiwaasleepers of a floor 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *waxa₁ ‘a frame’.

PMc   *waxa₁   a frame

Trukesewaa-, waa-nframe, frame of 
Satawalesewaa-(n)·a frame
Woleaianwaa·a frame
Proto-Chuukic*waa·a frame
Ponapeianwaar, wεrεbody (of a person), his body 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*waŋka-frame  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianwaqabox, case, cover 
Tokelauwhakawakaframe cover  (Bender et al. 1984)

— Cf. —

Kusaieanɒ ko, akierect, set up, establish (something) 

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *wa[xØ]a ‘crosspiece’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *waa ‘carry it, convey it, transport it’, Proto-Micronesian *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta ‘carry, convey, transport’.

PMc   *waxa₂   canoe

Trukesewaa, waa-n, wáá-n, wáá-nicanoe, his canoe, canoe of, acquire it as a canoe 
Puluwatesewaa,waa-n. wáá-n, waa-ni-(y)·canoe
Saipan Carolinianwaa, wáá-li·canoe
Saipan Carolinian·Twaa, wáá-ni·canoe
Satawalesewaa, waa-·canoe
Woleaianwaa, waa-le, waa-li, waa-li-i·canoe
Pulo-Annanwaa, waa-·canoe
Sonsorolesewa [sic]·canoe
Marshallesewahpossessive classifier for canoes, ships, boats, or vehicles 
Kiribatiwaa, waa-na, waa-ni, waa-nn-a (<*waa-ni-a)·canoe
Kusaieanɒ k·canoe
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*waŋka·canoe (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*waga·canoe (Ross 1988)
Arosiwakaforeign ship [obsolete] 

PMc   *wece or *woco   strike, hit, beat

Trukesewechbe struck, hit, beaten, beat 
 wechewechstriking, hitting, beating, be striking 
 weche-e-(y)strike, beat, hit (someone) 
Kiribatioroto strike, hit 
 ore-ato hit, strike (someone) 
 oroa hit, blow 
 orooroa repeated striking 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*wede (<wense), wese·strike, hit, beat
Sa’aweteto hit 
Arosiwete, wete-’ito strike and injure 
Kwaiokʷetebe hit by a foreign [supernatural] object causing local pains) 

— Cf. —

Laugwegweto buffet (as the wind) 

See also Proto-Chuukic *wici, wici-i ‘strike, whip, hit’.

PMc   *wee   be alike, same, equivalent

Trukeseweewebe alike, same, equal, equivalence 
Puluwatesewe-(y) [sic]to resemble (something) 
Saipan Carolinianweewebe the same 
 wee-(y)to resemble, look like (something) 
Woleaianweeweebe alike in appearance, be the same, similar 
 wee-(ye)resemble it, be the same as it 
Pulo-Annanweebe similar, alike 
Proto-Chuukic*wee·be alike, same, equivalent
Marshallesewaywéyé-form, shape, manner (of), how 
Kusaieanwe-(n), wε-(n)generation of 

— Cf. —

West Nakanaimaibe like 

See also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *weewee ‘understand’.

PMc   *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki-   be changed, change

Trukesewin, wini-(nó), winiwinbe changed, altered, shifted, moved, turned over 
 wini-(iti)change into 
 wini-kturn over 
 wini-kiturn (something) over 
 wini-sidisplace, removed, transplant (something), (reflexive) changed ones position 
 (sii)-winexchange, swap, trade, replacement 
 (sii)-wini-i-(v)replace, take the place of (something) 
 (ni)-win, (ni)-wini-(n)to come back, return, a return or exchange for 
 (ni)-wini-i-(y)make return to him, pay back for it, return it 
Puluwateseweli-(iti)to become (something) 
 weli-(feháŋŋ)difference, be different, strange 
 (lii)-welto change, substitute for, exchange, translate 
 (lii)-weli-(n)revenge for, pay back for 
Saipan Carolinianweli-ghito turn (something) over, till (the ground) 
 (lii)-welchange, exchange 
 (lii)-welito change (something), take the place of (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tweli-(gi)to turn (something) over, till (the ground) 
Woleaianwelichange, be different 
 weliwelikeep changing 
 (lii)-welibe changed, replaced 
 (lii)-weli-i-(ye)change it, replace it 
 (lii)-wen-(ne)its replacement, its substitute 
 (suu)-welito change, exchange, alternate 
Proto-Chuukic*weli, weliweli, weli-ki-·be changed, change
Ponapeianweli-be turned over 
 weli-kturn (something) over 
 weli-(di)be turned down 
Mokilesewelchange the leaves of a breadfruit fermenting pit 
 wili-kchange (the leaves), open (a book), turn over (a page) 
Kiribationi-ka, onioni-kato change (something) 
 oni-ki-(a)to change it 
Kusaiean(ay)-ɒ lchange, replace, act for someone 
 (æ)-olchange or replace (something), act for (someone) 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’olito return, relapse 
 ’oli-sito change, alter (something) 
Bugotuolito change 
 oli-hito exchange (something) 
Lauolito return, go back 
 oli-sito answer (someone) 
Arosiori, oriorito changed, alter 
 ori-sito changed, alter, exchange (something) 
Kwaioolito return for something, come back to 
 oli-si-(a)to replace (something) 

— Cf. Also —

West Nakanaiolito dig 

PMc   *w[eo]n[eo]   lie down, sleep

 wono-(wut)sleep in the meeting house 
 wono-(yimʷ)sleep in the family house 
Puluwatesewoon [sic]lie down 
 wono-(ccip)sleep restlessly 
Saipan Carolinianwol·lie down, sleep
Saipan Carolinian·Ton·lie down, sleep
Satawalesewolo-(tiw)·lie down, sleep
Woleaianwoloto lie down, stretch oneself out 
Pulo-Annanwono-(tio)·lie down, sleep
Sonsoroleseworo-·lie down, sleep
Proto-Chuukic*wono·lie down, sleep
Ponapeianwen-(di)·lie down, sleep
Kiribatiwene, wenewene·lie down, sleep
Kusaieanonato lie down 
 on-(kiyʌkibe prone, lie 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*qenolie down  (Ross 1988:462)
Sa’aeno, enoenoto lie down 
Bugotueŋgolie down, sleep 
Arosienolie down, rest 

— Cf. also —

Fijiannoto lie (of things) 
 (i)-nonoplace where something lies 

— and cf. —

Uraustronesisch*inep·lie down, sleep

PWMc   *were, werewere   to flash, shine

Trukesewerflash (of a light or flashlight) 
 were-e-(y)flash (a light) on 
Puluwatesewereshine brightly 
 weri-(n)bright shining of 
Saipan Carolinianwer, wwerbe illuminated 
Woleaianweere, were-light, firelight, gleam, flash 
 wereto shine, sparkle, glitter 
 werewerelightning, shine, light, flash 
Proto-Chuukic*were, werewere·to flash, shine
Marshallesewirʷirflash flame 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianpirto flash 

PMc   *weSe   semen, sperm

Trukeseweet, weta-(n)semen, his semen 
Puluwatesewet [sic]·semen, sperm
Saipan Carolinianweet, weti-(l)semen, his semen 
 wetiwetto masturbate 
Woleaianweete, wete-(l)·semen, sperm
Proto-Chuukic*wede·semen, sperm
Kusaieanwʌi (? *wuhy)·semen, sperm

PWMc   *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae]   fat, be fat

Trukeseiwi, #iwii-(n), iwiye-(n) (<*wiwiy[ae])rich or fatty taste, rich taste of 
Puluwateseyiwiiy, yiwiyá-(n)greasy or oily matter (as in some fish), greasy matter of 
Saipan Carolinianwibe fat (of animals and fish) 
Woleaianuwiyebe greasy, oily 
Proto-Chuukic*wiiy[ae], wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae]·fat, be fat
Ponapeianwiifat, grease 
Mokileseiwibe moist (of meat), fat (from fish) 
Marshallesewiy, wiywiyfat in turtle shell, blubber 

PCMc   *woca   coral reef

Trukesewooch, woche-n, wocho-(fénú)coral reef, coral reef of, fringing reef 
Mortlockesewoosh·coral reef
PuluwatesewóóR, wórá-n·coral reef
Saipan Carolinianwoosh, wosho-·coral reef
Saipan Carolinian·TooR, oRo-·coral reef
SatawalesewooR·coral reef
Woleaianwoosho, wosho-·coral reef
Pulo-Annanwoosa, wosa-·coral reef
Proto-Chuukic*woca·coral reef
Ponapeianoot·coral reef
Mokilesewos·coral reef
Marshallesewed, wede-(n)·coral reef
Kiribatioora, (te)-ora·coral reef

See also Marck (1994:314) Proto-Micronesian ot’a, which he sees as cognate with Proto-Central Pacific *voda ‘rocks in sea’.

PMc   *woco   strike, hit, beat

see Proto-Micronesian *wece.

PMc   *woki, woki-si-   turn something over, reverse direction

Saipan Carolinianwoghowoghto turn food when cooking 
 wogho-ti, weghe-tito flip (something) over 
 woghe-tághto turn and face in the oppposite direction 
Woleaianwegi-ti-(i)turn it, change it, transfer it, convert it 
 wegi-tegito turn around, be turned over 
Pulo-Annanwekito turn, change direction 
 weki-titurn it over, turn it around 
Proto-Chuukic*weki, weki-di-, weki-daki·turn something over, reverse direction
Ponapeianwiki-dto turn (something) over, to change (something, as an opinion) 
 wiki-dεkto turn, change direction 
Mokileseuku-dεkbe turned 
Pingilapeseweke-dεkto turn something over 
Marshallesewikʷékturn, turn over, upset, reciprocate; to change, translate, interpret (something) 
 wike-t, wikʷe-tchange, translate, interpret (something) 
 wikʷék-takto alternate, fluctuate, be changing constantly 
Kiribatiokito return 
 okiokifrequent returning 
 oki-rato return to (a place) 
Kusaieanekto turn, turn over, capsize 
 ekyekvarying, constantly changing 
 eka-suncover, reveal, disclose, turn over (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*foki·turn something over, reverse direction
Fijianvokito shift, of the wind 
Proto-Polynesian*fokito return, turn, change 
Rotumanho’igo back, return 

— Cf. —

Marshallesewike-jturn something over, which forms a doublet with the transitive variants wike-t and wikwe-t above 

— Cf. also —

Trukese(á)-wiiwito alternate, exchange, change off 
 wii-(y)take the place of (something), succeed (someone) 

— and cf. —

Kusaieanikto rock or roll (of a ship) 
 iki-lrock it, make it roll, change its position, turn it over 
Fijianvukito change, turn, revolt 
 vuki-caturn (something) over 
Proto-Polynesian*fuketo uncover 

PMc   *wono-   six

Trukesewoon, wono-, wona-, wone-, woné- wonu-·six
Mortlockesewoon, wono-·six
Puluwatesewoon, wono-·six
Saipan Carolinianool, olo-·six
Saipan Carolinian·Toon, ono-·six
Satawaleseool, olo-·six
Woleaianwoolo, wolo-, wole-·six
Proto-Chuukic*woono, wono-·six
Ponapeianaun, oun, wεnε-·six
Proto-Oceanic*onom·six (Ross 1988)

PMc   *woñu   turtle

Trukesewiin, wini-·turtle
Mortlockesewoon, wone-, wuni-·turtle
Puluwatesewooŋ, woŋi-·turtle
Saipan Carolinianwooŋ, woŋi-, #woŋo-·turtle
Satawalesewooŋ, woŋi-·turtle
Woleaianwooŋ, woŋi-·turtle
Pulo-Annanwoonú, wonú-·turtle
Mokilesewoy, wey-·turtle
Kiribation, oni-·turtle
Kusaiean(ik) wεkind of turtle 
Proto-Oceanic*poñu·turtle (Ross 1988)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*peñu·turtle (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Kusaieanŋoekind of turtle 

PCMc   *woŋ[iu]-si   wring out

Trukesewuŋbe wrung out 
 wuŋu-tiwring or squeeze it out 
Puluwatesewoŋi-ti-(y), #woŋe-ti-(y)wring it 
Saipan Carolinianwoŋowoŋ, woŋo-ti·wring out
Satawalesewoŋowoŋ, woŋo-ti·wring out
Woleaianwoŋiwoŋito squeeze, press hard 
 woŋiti-(i)squeeze it, press it 
Proto-Chuukic*woŋi, woŋi-ti·wring out
Ponapeianweŋiweŋ, weŋi-dto wring, squeeze 
 iŋi-d-(pεnε)to squeeze 
Mokileseoŋŋoŋwring out 
 uŋu-dwring it out 
Kiribatioŋi-rawring (something) 
 oŋi-ri-(a)wring it 

— Cf. —

Kusaieantweŋtweŋpick, twist 
 tweŋtweŋigrasp or hold between two objects and twist 

There is no basis for Geraghty’s (1990) Micronesian reflexes of his Proto–Eastern Oceanic *ŋkiRi ‘squeeze’. Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian (?) *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si- ‘blow (one’s nose)’, Proto-Chuukic *ŋúTú, ŋŋúTú-, ŋúTú-ri- ‘to snort, blow one’s nose’.

PCMc   *woro-   swallow

Trukeseworo-mito swallow it 
Saipan Carolinianuru-mi, oro-mi·swallow
Kiribatioo-ŋaswallow (something) 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanlʌlʌ, lʌlʷe-swallow (something) 

— Cf. also —

Sa’a’ono, ’ono’ono, ’ono-mito swallow 
Bugotusono, sono-vito swallow (a loan?) 
Arosiono, ono-mito swallow 
Kwaioono-mi-(a) (also odo-mi-(a))to swallow (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tono, tono-mi·swallow

— but note —

Proto-Oceanic*konomswallow  (Ross 1988)

Cf. also Proto–Western Micronesian *Toro-mi ‘suck up (something)’, Proto-Micronesian *woro₁ ‘gills’.

PMc   *woro₁   gills

Trukesewoor, wora-nfish gills, its gills 
Saipan Carolinian(fat)-oru-(l)its fish gills 
Woleaian(fati)-worofish gills 
Mokilesewɔl, wɔlɔ-gills (loan?) 
Marshallesewerfish gills 
Kiribatioofish gills 
Kusaieanɔlɔ [sic]gills 
 ɔlɔlɔhaving many gills 

See also Proto-Micronesian *woro₂ ‘wall, fence’, Proto–Central Micronesian *woro- ‘swallow’.

PMc   *woro₂   wall, fence

Trukeseworoorstone wall, stone pier, stone causeway 
Puluwateseworoorpier, dock 
Satawaleseworoorpier, wall, breakwater 
Woleaianworoorofence, barrier to prevent intrusion 
Proto-Chuukic*woroworo·wall, fence
Marshallesewerʷerpen, fence, enclosure 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*oRokind of fence  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Fijianoro, oro-ta, odroto clasp, (i)-oro waistband 

PMc   *wos[ao]   Colocasia taro

Trukesewoot, wote-(n)Colocasia taro, Colocasia taro of 
Mortlockeseyóótelephant ear taro 
PuluwatesewootColocasia taro 
 woto-(pʷeR)a kind of Colocasia taro 
Saipan Carolinianoot, wootColocasia taro 
 woto-(shall)a kind of Colocasia taro 
Satawalesewoot·Colocasia taro
WoleaianwooteColocasia taro 
 woto-(shalo)a kind of Colocasia taro 
Pulo-Annanwoota, wota-sweet taro grown on dry land 
 PCk*wod[ao]-·Colocasia taro
Ponapeianood, wεεdAlocasia taro 
Mokilesewodswamp taro 
MarshallesewetAlocasia taro 
Kusaieanɔta kind of taro 

PMc   *wotu   outward

Trukese-wu, -wuu-outward, to the north 
Puluwatese-wowoutward, seaward 
Saipan Carolinian-wowoutward, westward 
Woleaian-waú, -wéúoutward, to the north or to the south (i.e., toward open ocean) 
Pulo-Annan-wowoutside, seaward 
Kusaiean-ɔt, -wothence 
Proto-Oceanic*potusea beyond the reef  (Ross 1988:462)

— Cf. —


Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *watu ‘toward or in direction of person addressed’.

PCMc   *woTo   cut in two

Trukesewos, wosoosbe cut in half, cut in two 
 wose-e-(y)cut it in half 
Puluwatesewohe-e-(y)cut it in half 
Saipan Carolinianwose-e-(y)to cut and gather (firewood) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tohe-(y)to cut and gather firewood 
Proto-Chuukic*woT[ao]·cut in two
Kiribatiotootoengage in breaking or folding 
 oto-(ua-a)break (something) in two 
 ote-ato fold (something) 
 (mʷa)-otobroken (as a stick) 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*pocaqin pieces 

PMc   *wua, wuana   grey hair

Trukesewúwan, wúwana-(n)grey hair, his grey hair 
Kiribatiiagrey hair 
Kusaieanfiyε-lhis grey hair 
Pre-PMc*fuqa, fuqana·grey hair
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qupa, qupa-na·grey hair
Nggelauvanagrey hair 

There is an apparent problem with the the initial f of Kusaiean.

PMc   *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta   carry, convey, transport

Trukesewuwe-yi, wuwe-e-(y)carry, convey, transport (something) 
 wuwe-ya-a-(to), wuwe-e-(ye-to)convey it hither 
 wuwoow, wuwoowo-(nó) (< *wuwawuwa)convey, carry, transport, tote 
 wuwa-s, wuwa-se-(n)grass cover laid on top of food that has already been covered by leaves in an earth oven (thing transported), grass covering of 
 uwá-á-(y)carry it 
Puluwatesewuwa-(y)carry, transport (something) 
 wuwa-a-(to)carry it hither 
 wuwów [sic]to carry 
 wuwa-h, wuwa-há-(n)burden, carried object, burden of 
 wuwóówo [sic]to carry 
Saipan Carolinianuwa-sscent or aroma (pleasant or unpleasant) on the air 
Saipan Carolinian·Tuwa-hscent or aroma on the air 
Woleaianuwa-teload, belongings 
Proto-Chuukic*wuwa, wuwawuwa, wuwa-ti-, wuwa-ta·carry, convey, transport
Marshallesewiwéy , yiwwéy (western dialect), wiwwéy (eastern dialect)to board, ride, get on, embark, mount, to rise (of dough) 
Kiribatiuouaengage in carrying a child 
 uo-tato carry (something), something carried 
 uo-ta-naengage in carrying 
 ua-(aki)to be engaged in dragging or towing 
 ua-(kaakaa)be burdened with many packages 
 ua-(roko)gift or present brought as to a chief 
 ua-(ruruŋ)shifting of a cargo 
 ua-(tou)engage in carrying pandanus fruit 
Kusaieanwʌ-nto carry, transport (something) 
 wiwεdo carrying 
Proto-Oceanic*pua-ti, pua-ta·carry, convey, transport
Fijianvuato bear two burdens on the shoulder [one at each end of a stick], vua-ta crop, harvest 
 vua-tacrop, harvest 
Tonganfuato lift, carry on shoulder with a stick 
 fue-si-[a]carry, bear [a burden] 
Kwaiofuacarry a load 
 fua-’a-[gu]thing conveyed to me 
Uraustronesisch*buhat·carry, convey, transport

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na ‘cargo, load’, Proto-Micronesian *u-Ti, u-Taki ‘carry’, Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *waa ‘carry it, convey it, transport it’, Proto-Micronesian *waxa₁ ‘a frame’.

PMc   *wuaa   fruit

Trukesewuwa, wuwaa-(n)fruit, berry, its fruit 
Puluwatesewuwafruit, flower, bur 
Saipan Carolinianuwa, wwa, uwaa-(l)fruit, flower, its fruit 
Woleaianuwaafruit, to bear fruit 
Pulo-Annanua [sic]fruit, flower 
Ponapeianwaafruit, flower 
Mokilesewaa, wee-(n)its fruit, fruit of 
 uuwabe in fruit 
Marshallesewiwahbear much fruit or many flowers 
Kiribatiuaa, uaa-(na)fruit, its fruit 
Proto-Oceanic*pua·fruit (Ross 1988)
Sa’ahue, huehue·fruit
Proto-Kimbe*vuaseed, fruit, berry 

— Cf. —


PMc   *wuci   banana

Trukesewuuch, wuchu-(n)·banana
Mortlockesewuush, wushu-(n)·banana
PuluwatesewuuR, wuRú-(n)·banana
Saipan Carolinianwiish, wisha- wishe-·banana
SatawalesewiiR, wiRi-(l)·banana
Woleaianwiishi, wishi-(l)·banana
Pulo-Annanwiisi, wisi-(n)·banana
Ponapeianuut, uti-·banana
Mokilesewus, wusi-(n)·banana
Kiribatiuria tree 
Proto-Oceanic*pudi·banana (Ross 1988)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*punti·banana (Blust 1984–85)

PMc   *wuko   go early in the morning

Trukesewuk, wuko-(nó)go out of ones house for the first time in the morning 
Puluwatesewuke-e-(y)come or go to do (something) in the early morning 
 wuko-(ló)go off in the early morning 
 wukookrepeatedly come or go in the early morning 
Saipan Carolinianughto be early in the morning 
 ughu-(tá)get up early in the morning 
Saipan Carolinian·Tugvery early in the morning 
Woleaianugoto go early 
Proto-Chuukic*wuko·go early in the morning
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fuko·go early in the morning
Sa’ahu’ocome early in the morning 
 [ma]-hu’ohu’oearly morning, dawn 
Bugotuvugo-ito be early afoot in the morning 
Arosihu’ostart very early, before sunrise 
 hu’o-[rodo]to set out early 

PMc   *wuko, wuko-Si-   pursue

Kiribatiuko-ra, ukouko-rato look for (something) 
Kusaieanukɔkfollow a trail, chase 
 ukechase, pursue, drive away (someone) 

PMc   *wuko, wuko-ti-   fishnet, catch in a net

Trukesewuuk, wuke-(n), wukowuk, or wukuwuk, wuke-(ey)fishnet, fishnet of, caul or spiderweb, catch in a net 
Puluwatesewuuk, wukook, wukooko-nseine, web, web of 
Satawalesewuko-(l)fishnet of 
Woleaianuugo, ugo-(li), ugougofishnet, fishnet of, swim-bladder 
Pulo-Annanuuko, uko-fishnet 
Proto-Chuukic*wuko·fishnet, catch in a net
Mokileseukround net 
Marshallesewek, wike-net 
Kiribati(?) iko-tabring together, collect, gather (something) 
Proto-Oceanic*pukot·fishnet, catch in a net
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fuko-t·fishnet, catch in a net
Sa’ahu’ofishnet net, seine 
Arosihu’olarge net, seine 
Kwaiofu’oplace for an ambush 

— Note also —


PMc   *wuku, wuuku   to blow

Mortlockesewike-(y)blow (something) 
Puluwatesewiiki-(y)to blow (something) as by wind or person 
 wiiká-á-(tá)blow (something) upwards 
Saipan Carolinianughu-u-(w)to blow air on (of a person or wind) 
Woleaianugu-ublow (a musical instrument) 
 uguugublow with the mouth 
Pulo-Annanuku [sic]blow on it 
Ulithianyugu(-u)·to blow
Sonsorolesewuuguto blow 
Proto-Chuukic*wuku·to blow
Ponapeian(?) iikinhale, breathe in deeply, absorb 
Mokileseukto blow, to smoke 
Marshallesewiwikto blow (as wind) wiwiki-(y) blow on (something) 
 wiwiki-(y)blow on (something) 
Kiribatiukito begin to blow after a calm 
Kusaieanukto blow (a bugle), blow (something) away 
 ukukto blow, be blowing 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*ufu-Cblow  (Geraghty 1983:153–154)
Fijianuvu, uvu-ca, uvu-sablow with the mouth 
Arosiuhu, uhu-’ito blow, blow on 
Proto-Kimbe*puputo blow 
Uraustronesisch*puputto blow 

— Note also —

Trukesepʷube blown (as a trumpet) 
< PMc*pʷuu·to blow
< POc*mpupube blown (as a trumpet) 
Tonganpupuuto sound as a conch shell when blown, to whistle 
Proto-Polynesian*[ma]-puwhistle, blow hard 
West Nakanaipu-[su]to blow [as a conch shell], to blow something out of the mouth 

— Cf. —

Sa’a’uhito blow with the mouth 
Bugotuifublow with the mouth 
Arosiuhito blow 
Kwaiofulublow with mouth 
 ufiplay panpipes 
 ufi-ato blow on 

PWMc   *wul[ae]   penis

Trukesewuun, wunu-(n)testicles and scrotum, his testicles 
Ponapeianwilεhis penis 
Mokilesewilɔhis penis 
Marshallesewél, wile-penis 

PMc   *wumʷa   hermit crab

Trukesewumʷowumʷ, wumʷowumʷe-(n)hermit crab, hermit crab of 
Puluwatesewumʷówumʷ, wumʷówumʷá-(n)·hermit crab
Saipan Carolinianumʷá-(l), umʷe-(l)·hermit crab
Pulo-Annanuma-(anna) [sic]hermit crab in the shell 
Proto-Chuukic*wumʷa·hermit crab
Marshallesewémʷhermit crab 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qumʷa·hermit crab
Fijianuga·hermit crab
Tonganquŋalarge hermit crab 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*qumaŋ·hermit crab (Blust 1984–85)

— Cf. —

Ponapeianmpʷahermit crab 
Mokileseumʷpʷahermit crab 

PMc   *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-   earth oven, bake in an oven

Trukesewuumʷ, wumʷu-(n)earth oven, oven of 
 wumʷbe put in an earth oven 
 wumʷu-nicook (something) in an earth oven 
Mortlockeseuumʷε- [sic]·earth oven, bake in an oven
Puluwatesewuumʷ, wumʷu-ni-(y)·earth oven, bake in an oven
Saipan Carolinianuumʷ, umʷu-li·earth oven, bake in an oven
Satawaleseuumʷ, umʷu-(n)·earth oven, bake in an oven
Woleaianuumʷu, umʷu-earth oven 
 umʷuto cook in an earth oven 
Pulo-Annanumʷu·earth oven, bake in an oven
Proto-Chuukic*wumʷu, wumʷu-ni-·earth oven, bake in an oven
Ponapeianuumʷearth oven 
 umʷto bake in an earth oven 
 umʷu-nto bake (something) in an earth oven 
Mokileseumʷto bake 
 umʷu-nbake (something) 
Marshallesewimʷ, wimʷwimʷ, wimʷi-n·earth oven, bake in an oven
Kiribatiumʷuumʷ, umʷu-na·earth oven, bake in an oven
Kusaieanumearth oven 
 #umicook (food) in an earth oven 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*qumu·earth oven, bake in an oven
Proto-Polynesian*qumu·earth oven, bake in an oven
Sa’aumu·earth oven, bake in an oven
Arosiumu·earth oven, bake in an oven
Kwaioumuoven stones 
West Nakanaihumu·earth oven, bake in an oven

PCMc   *wumʷu-lau   a reef fish prized as food

Trukesewumʷu-né·a reef fish prized as food
Puluwatesewumʷu-lé·a reef fish prized as food
Saipan Carolinianumʷu-lé·a reef fish prized as food
Woleaianwumʷu-léé·a reef fish prized as food
Proto-Chuukic*wumʷu-lau·a reef fish prized as food
Ponapeianumʷu-lε·a reef fish prized as food
Kiribatiimʷu-naia fish 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *wumʷu, wumʷu-ni- ‘earth oven, bake in an oven’.

PMc   *wuŋa   ridgepole, top

Trukesewuuŋ, wuŋa-(n)ridgepole of house, its ridgepole 
 wuŋowuŋbe high, lofty, summit 
 wuŋe-niput a ridgepole on it 
 (o)-wuŋowuŋamake it high, elevate it 
Mortlockeseuuŋ, uŋa-(n)·ridgepole, top
 wuŋe-(lap)main (lower of two) ridgepole 
Saipan Carolinianuuŋ, wuuŋ, uŋa-(l)·ridgepole, top
 wuŋe-(lap)main ridgepole 
Woleaianuuŋe, uŋa-(le)ridgepole, ceiling, its ridgepole 
 wuŋe-(lape)main ridgepole 
Pulo-Annanuuŋa, uŋa-ridgepole, ceiling 
Proto-Chuukic*wuŋa·ridgepole, top
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fuŋa·ridgepole, top
Tonganfuŋatop, upper surface, lap 

PMc   *wuŋu   fruit cluster

Kiribati-uŋbunch of pandanus fruit (in counting) 
Kusaieancluster, bunch 
 uŋuŋ [sic]having many clusters 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fuŋu·fruit cluster
Sa’ahuŋu, huŋuhuŋubear fruit 
Bugotuvuŋubear fruit 
Arosihuŋuto fruit, a bunch or cluster of fruit 
Kwaiofuŋubunch of fruit, bearing fruit 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*puŋu·fruit cluster
Proto-Austronesian*puŋuN·fruit cluster (Blust 1980:131)

Cf. Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *wumʷu ‘fruit cluster’.

PMc   *wupʷa   belly, abdomen, torso

Trukesewuupʷ, wupʷa-(n)belly, abdomen, his belly 
Puluwatesewuupʷ, wupʷe-(er)belly, stomach, their belly 
Saipan Carolinianuubʷ, ubʷa-(l) ‘a., stomach, his a.; ’ Wol uube, uba-(l) ‘chest, his c.’·belly, abdomen, torso
Pulo-Annanuupʷa, upʷa-stomach 
Proto-Chuukic*wupʷa·belly, abdomen, torso
Ponapeianiipʷεhis torso 
Mokileseupʷ, upʷe-(n)part of the back, shoulder blade, part of belly of 
Marshallesewébʷ, wibʷe-chest 
Kiribatiubʷapart of the upper breast over the sternum 
 ubʷa-(ete)suffer from dyspepsia 

— Cf. —

Kusaiean(in)-yʌwε-chest, bosom 
Fijianumatrunk of a tree for making into a canoe 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*tobʷa-belly  (Geraghty 1983)
Sa’a’oqabelly, bowels, stomach 
Ulawan’opabelly, bowels, stomach 
Lauogastomach, belly 

PMc   *wupʷu   young coconut

Woleaianuubu, ubu-young coconut, young coconut meat 
Pulo-Annanuupʷu, upʷu-green coconut, coconut milk 
Proto-Chuukic*wupʷu·young coconut
Ponapeianuupʷdrinking coconut 
Mokileseupʷunripe coconut 
Marshallesewibʷsoft, unripe coconut, tender skin of a baby 
 (meje)-wibʷcoconut, nearly ripe 
Kiribatiubʷusofter end of a green coconut 
 ubʷube in the early stage of development as a fruit 
Kusaieanufyoung coconut 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *wupʷu-₁ ‘young coconut leaf’.

PCMc   *wupʷu-₁   young coconut leaf

Trukesewupʷu-t, wupʷu-te-(n)young coconut leaf, leaf of 
 (o)-wupʷu-ta ‘put young coconut leaves on (something) 
Puluwatesewupʷu-tnew upright shoot of pandanus or coconut leaf 
Saipan Carolinianubʷu-tshoot of a coconut frond 
Woleaianubu-teimmature coconut frond, white young coconut leaf 
Proto-Chuukic*wupʷu-da·young coconut leaf
Mokileseupʷu-dcoconut frond shoot 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*wupʷu-dayoung coconut leaf 
Kiribatiubʷuubʷusoft and tender as a sprout 
 ubʷuubʷuthe tender germ top of a coconut tree 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *wupʷu ‘young coconut’.

PCMc   *wupʷu-₂   breast

Trukese-wupʷbreast (in counting) 
 (o)-wupʷ, -wupu-(n)breast, her breast 
 wupʷu-riapproach (another) with breast forward 
Saipan Carolinian(ó)-ubʷbreast, teat 
Kiribatiubʷu-(rake)too forward, rude in approach 

Note that the Kiribati form could also derive from Kiribati (te)-ubwu ‘nose, snout’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *wupʷa ‘belly, abdomen, torso’.

PMc   *wuro, wuro-mata   wash ones face

Woleaianuru-mate·wash ones face
Pulo-Annanulo, uloulo·wash ones face
Marshallesewér-méj·wash ones face
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*furo·wash ones face
Kwaiofulo-ato rub, wipe, polish, clear up something 

— Cf. —

Bugotuujurito rub the skin as when bathing 
 gnujurito rub (something) with the hand 

— and cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fuRipour water on, rinse  (Geraghty 1990)

PCMc   *wusi, wuwusi   splash water on (something)

Trukesewutithrow or splash water on (something) 
 wutuutsplash with water 
 wutu-massplash water on the face 
Mortlockeseúúteto splash (something) 
Puluwatesewuti-(y)throw water on (something) 
Saipan Carolinianuutipour or sprinkle water 
Proto-Chuukic*wudu, wudi, wuwudi·splash water on (something)
Ponapeianiidfetch or draw liquids 
Mokileseidto draw water 
 idi-pdraw (water) 
Kiribatiuurato throw salt water onto (a seine to frighten the fish) 
 urito sprinkle with water as in religious ablution  (Bender et al. 1984)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *u[sS]a ‘rain’.

PMc   *wuti   pull up, uproot

Trukesewi, wiiwipulled up, extracted (of something planted), to extract, pull up, weed (a garden) 
 wii-(y)pull up (plants) 
Puluwatesewiiwipull up with the hands (as taro or seaweeds) 
 wii-(y)pull it up, jerk it up 
Saipan Carolinianwito pull up or uproot a plant 
 wii-sághbe uprooted, pulled up 
Saipan Carolinian·Twito pull up or uproot a plant 
 wii-hegbe uprooted, pulled up 
Satawalesewiiwipluck up grass 
Woleaianwiiwito pull up, uproot, extract 
 wii-(ye)pull it up, uproot it 
Pulo-Annanuduto pluck, harvest by pulling 
Proto-Chuukic*wuti·pull up, uproot
Ponapeianuspull out, pluck 
Mokilesewijpull (something) up or out 
Marshallesewij, wijwijpull out of ground, uproot 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*futi·pull up, uproot
Sa’ahisuto pluck leaves, pull fruit 
Bugotuvutito pluck up by the roots 
Arosihusito pluck, pull off [as fruit] 
Kwaiofusibroken off, died out [of a kin group] 
Uraustronesisch*putputpull out, pluck out, *puput pluck off 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanfifto pull out 
 fi-sto extract (something), pull (something) out 

— Cf. also —

Kiribatiauauengage in drawing forth 
 au-tadraw or pluck (something) out 

PMc   *wuu   wicker fish trap

Trukesewuuwicker fish trap, lobster pot 
 wuu-nicatch (something) in a fish trap 
Mortlockesewuu·wicker fish trap
Puluwatesewuu·wicker fish trap
Saipan Carolinianuu·wicker fish trap
Satawalesewuu·wicker fish trap
Woleaianuu·wicker fish trap
Proto-Chuukic*wuu·wicker fish trap
Ponapeianuu·wicker fish trap
Marshallesewiw·wicker fish trap
Kiribatiuu·wicker fish trap
Kusaieanu·wicker fish trap
Proto-Oceanic*pupu·wicker fish trap
Fijianvuvu·wicker fish trap
West Nakanaivuvu·wicker fish trap
Uraustronesisch*bubu·wicker fish trap

— See also —

Yapesewupchicken trap 

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